CODI: Cornucopia of Disability Information

History of Disabilities and Social Problems: Asylums

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Asylums / Asiles

(An) Account of the Rise and Present Establishment of the Lunatic Asylum in
Manchester. Manchester, England, 1771.

Ackernecht, Erwin H. (1975) Political prisoners in French mental institutions
before 1789, during the Revolution, and under Napolean I. Medical History,
Vol. 19, 250-255.

Adams, T. (1615) Mystical Bedlam, or the World of Mad-Men. Great Britain.

Alliez, Joseph et al. (1977) L'hospice des Insenses de la Trinite, a Aix-en-
Provence. Histoire des Sciences medicales, tome 11, No. 1-2, 19-27.

Allodi, F. and Kedward, H.B. (1977) The evolution of the mental hospital in
Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, Vol. 68, 219-224.

Andriola, Joseph and Cata, Gabriel. (1969) The oldest mental hospital in the
world. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, Vol. 20, 42-43. [Spain]

Archival teaching museum - London Psychiatric Hospital. Canadian Psychiatric
Association Journal, Vol. 17, 1972, 78.

Arlidge, John Thomas. (1859) On the state of lunacy and the legal provision
for the insane, with observations on the construction and organization of
asylums. London: Churchill.

Battelle, M. (1845) Rapport sur les etablissements des alienes d'Angleterre,
et sur ceux de Bicetre et de la Salpetriere. Paris.

Benoit, J.C. (1967) Note historique a l'occasion du centenaire du Centre
Psychiatrique Sainte-Anne. Presse medicale, t. 75, 2735-8.

Bentham, J. (1791) Panopticon; or, the Inspection House. Great Britain.

Bentham, J. (1812) Pauper Management Improved: Particularly by Means of an
Application of the Panopticon Principle of Construction. Great Britain.

Blatt, B. (1970). Exodus from Pandemonium: Human abuse and a reformation of
public policy. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Bleandonu, Gerard et Le Gaufy, Guy. (1975) Naissance des asiles d'alienes
(Auxerre-Paris). Annales Econ. Soc. Civil., tome 30, No. 1, 93-121. English
translation in R. Forster and O. Ranum (Eds.) Deviants and the Abandoned in
French Society, 1978, 180-212.

Bovier, Philippe. (1979) De l'Asile a la cite: histoire de la clinique
psychiatrique de Bel-Air et transformations des domaines de la folie,
1900-1975. These, Universite de Geneve, Faculte de Medecine.

Bowen, T. (1784) An Historical Account of the Origin, Progress and Present
State of Bethlem Hospital. Great Britain.

Brown, Thomas Edward (1981) "Living with God's afflicted": a history of the
Provincial Lunatic Asylum at Toronto, 1830-1911. Thesis (Ph.D.), Kingston,
Canada: Queen's University.

Browne, W.A.F. (1837) What Asylums Were, Are and Ought to Be. Edinburgh,

Bru, P. (1890) Histoire de Bicetre. Paris.

Brunton, W.A. (1972) If cows could fly. Australia and New Zealand Journal of
Psychiatry, Vol. 6, 46-51. [The administration of the first Inspector of
Lunatic Asylums in New Zealand, 1876-1881].

Bucknill, John. (1876) Notes on Asylums for the Insane in America. London:

Burdett, Henry. (1891) Hospitals and Asylums of the World: Vol. 1 - Asylums:
history and administration, Vol. 2 - Asylum construction with plans and
bibliography. London: J.A. Churchill.

Burdett, Henry. (1893) Hospitals and Asylums of the World: their origin,
history, construction, administration, management and legislation... . The
portfolio of plans containing the plans of...British, Colonial, American and
foreign addition to plans of all the hospitals of London. 4
vols. London: J. A. Churchill.

Cahow, Clark. (1978) People, Patients and Politics: the history of the North
Carolina mental hospitals, 1848-1960. New York: Arno Press. [Revision of
thesis, Duke University, 1967]

(The) Cairo Asylum in 1877. From: Urquhart, A.R. and Tuke, W.S. (1879-1880)
Two visits to the Cairo Asylum, 1877 and 1878. Journal of Mental Science,
Vol. 25, 43-53. Reprinted in Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine,
Vol. 48, 1510-1514.

Cameron, Donald. (1954) Admissions to Scottish mental hospitals in the last
hundred years. British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine, Vol 8,

Cameron, Donald. (1967) The origin and growth of the day hospital. Canadian
Psychiatric Association Journal, Vol. 12, 287-291.

Cameron, Donald and Silverman, B. (1965) Tale of two institutes. American
Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 122, 189-194. [Institute of Mental Hygiene and
Allam Memorial Institute of Psychiatry, Montreal]

Carlson, Eric. (1974) The death of the asylum? Bulletin of the New York
Academy of Medicine, Vol. 50, 636-649.

Carlson, Eric and Woods, Evelyn. (1959) Uses of the past. - Architecture as
therapy. - English Quakers and architecture. - Aging and mental illness.
Mental Hospital, March, April and October.

Chamberlain, A.S. (1966) Early mental hospitals in Spain. American Journal of
Psychiatry, Vol. 123, Aug., 143-149.

Christe, Pierre. (1960) Evolution de la psychiatrie hospitaliere: la clinique
psychiatrique universitaire de Bale de 1917 a 1956. Schweiz. Arch. neurol.
Psychiat., tome 85, No. 1-2, 213-264.

Conolly, J. (1847) The Construction and Government of Lunatic Asylums. Great

Dain, Norman. (1971) Disordered Minds: the first century of Eastern State
Hospital in Williamsburg, Virginia, 1766-1866. Williamsburg, Va.: Colonial
Williamsburg Foundation.

Dain, Norman. (1976) From colonial America to bicentennial America: two
centuries of vicissitudes in the institutional care of mental patients.
Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, Vo. 52, 1179-1196.

Dershowitz, A.M. (1974) Dangerousness as a criterion for confinement.
Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatric Law, Vol. 2, 172-179.

(A) Description of Bedlam with an Account of its Present Inhabitants, Great
Britain, 1772.

Deutsch, Albert. (1949) The Mentally Ill in America: A history of their care
and treatment. New York.

Digby, Anne. (1983) Changes in the Asylum: the case of York, 1777-1815.
Economic History Review, Vol. 36 (2), 153-160.

Digby, Anne. (1985) Madness, Morality and Medicine: a study of the York
Retreat, 1796-1914. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dominguez, Emilio. (1967) The Hospital of Innocents. Humane treatment of the
mentally ill in Spain, 1409-1512. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, Vol. 31,
285- 297.

Duncan, A. (1809) Observations on the Structure of Hospitals for the
Treatment of Lunatics. Edinburgh.

Dwyer, Ellen (1987) Homes for the Mad: life inside two nineteenth century
asylums. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.

Earle, P. (1841) A Visit to Thirteen Asylums for the Insane in Europe.

Edginton, B. (1981) The Formation of the Asylum in Upper Canada. Doctoral
Thesis, University of Toronto.

Esquirol, J.E. (1819) Des Etablissements consacres aux alienes en France.

Evans, R. (1971) Bentham's Panopticon: an Incident in the Social History of
Architecture. Architectural Association Quarterly, v3, No. 2.

Falret, Jules. (1890) Les alienes et les asiles alienes. Paris: J.B.

Finnane, Mark. (1985) Asylums, families and the state. History Workshop,
Issue 20 (Autumn), 134-148.

Foucault, Michel. (1961) Folie et deraison. Histoire de la folie a l'age
classique. Paris: P.U.F.

Foucault, Michel. (1965) Madness and Civilization. New York: Vintage.

Foucault, Michel. (1966) Maladie mentale et psychologie. Paris.

Frank, Justin A. Jr. (1967) Non-restraint and Robert Gardiner Hill. Bulletin
of the History of Medicine, Vol. 41, 140-160.

Gauchet, Marcel et Swain, Gladys (1980) La pratique de l'esprit humain:
l'institution asilaire et la revolution democratique. Paris: Gallimard.

Glover, Mary R. (1984) The Retreat, York: an early Quaker experiment in the
treatment of mental illness. York, England: W. Sessions.

Granville, Joseph et al. (1877) The Care and the Cure of the Insane: being
the reports of the Lancet Commission on Lunatic Asylums, 1875-6-7, for
Middlesex, the City of London, and Surrey. 2 vols. London: Hardwicke and

Great Britain. (1763) Report of the Select Committee Appointed to Enquire
into the State of Private Madhouses.

Great Britain. (1772) Reasons for the Establishing and Further Encouragement
of St. Luke's Hospital for Lunatics.

Great Britain. (1807) Report from the Select Committee on the State of
Criminal and Pauper Lunatics and the Laws Relating thereto.

Great Britain. (1815) Report from the Committee of the House of Commons on
Madhouses in England. London: Baldwin, Cradock and Joy.

Great Britain. (1815-1816) Reports from the Select Committee on the Better
Regulation of Madhouses in England.

Great Britain. (1819) Return of the Number of Lunatics Confined in the
Different Goals, Hospitals, and Lunatic Asylums.

Great Britain. (1824) Returns of Counties where there are Lunatic Asylums.

Great Britain. (1827) Report from the Select Committee on the State of Pauper

Great Britain. (1837) Returns of the Number of Pauper Lunatics and Idiots in
Each County in England and Wales; and of Criminal Lunatics, with Their Places
of Confinement.

Great Britain. (1914-37) Commissioners in Lunacy. Annual Reports.

Great Britain. (1926) Report of the Royal Commission on Lunacy and Mental
Disorder. London.

Grey, J. (1815) History of the York Lunatic Asylum. York, England.

Grob, Gerald. (1965) Origins of the state mental hospital: a case study.
Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1-19.

Grob, Gerald. (1966) The State and the Mentally Ill: a history of Worcester
State Hospital in Massachusetts. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of
North Carolina Press.

Grob, Gerald. (1973) Class, ethnicity and race in American mental hospitals.
Journal of the History of Medicine, Vol. 28, 207-229.

Grob, Gerald. (1973) Mental Institutions in America: Social Policy to 1875.
New York: Free Press.

Grob, Gerald. (1977) Rediscovering asylums: the unhistorical history of the
mental hospital. The Hastings Center Report, No. 7, 33-41.

Guillain, G. et Mathieu, P. (1925) La Salpetriere. Paris.

Halliday, A. (1806) On the Present State of Lunatic Asylums in Great Britain.
Edinburgh, Scotland.

Halliday, A. (1828) A General View of the Present State of Lunatics and
Lunatic Asylums in Great Britain and Ireland. Great Britain.

Henry, M. (1922) La Salpetriere sous l'Ancien Regime. Paris.

Henry, W. (1941) Mental hospitals. In G. Zilboorg (Ed.) A History of Medical
Psychology. New York: Norton, 558-589.

Hood, W. Charles. (1856) Statistics of Insanity: being a decennial report of
Bethlem Hospital, from 1846 to 1855 inclusive. London: D. Batten.

Howard, J.S. (1974) Eastern State: America's oldest public hospital. Virginia
Medical Monthly, Vol. 101, 1043-1049. [mental hospital]

Howden, Thomas. (1865) Notes on Italian asylums for the insane. Edinburgh
Medical Journal, Vol. 11, No. 6, Dec., 535-540.

Hunter, Richard and McAlpine, I. (1965) Samuel Tuke's first publication on
the treatment of patients at The Retreat, 1811. British Journal of
Psychiatry, Vol. 111, 769-772.

Hunter, R. and Macalpine, I. (1974) Psychiatry for the Poor: 1851, Colony
Hatch Asylum to Friern Hospital, 1973 - a medical and social history. London:

Hurd, Henry. (Ed.) (1916-17) The Institutional Care of the Insane in the
United States and Canada. 4 vols. Baltimore: John Hopkins Press.

Ireland, Anthony. (1964) The select committee on the lunatic asylum, Tarban
Creek [Australia], 1846. Medical Journal of Australia, Vol. 51, 90-97.

Jaeger, M. (1971) Naissance d'un hopital psychiatrique. Pensee, No. 158,

Kirkbride, Thomas. (1880) On the Construction, Organization, and General
Arrangements of Hospitals for the Insane. 2nd. Ed., Philadelphia. Reprinted
by Arno Press, New York, 1973.

Klotter, Alva. (1957) California mental hospitals. An historical sketch.
Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, Vol. 45, 159-163.

Lasch, Christopher. (1974) The origins of the asylum. In The World of
Nations: Reflections on American History, Politics and Culture. New York:

Lee, Y.K. (1973) Lunatics and lunatic asylums in early Singapore (1819-1969).
Medical History, Vol. 17, 16-36.

Libert, Lucien. (1933) Une maison d'alienes et de correctionnaires sous
l'ancien regime. La Charite de Chateau-Thierry. Bulletin de la Societe
francaise d'Histoire de la Medecine, tome 27, 23-43.

Luckin, Bill (1983) Towards a social history of institutionalization. Social
History [Great Britain], Vol. 8, No. 1, 87-94.

MacDonald, Michael. (1981) Mystical Bedlam: madness, anxiety and healing in
17th century England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mack, M. (1962) Jeremy Bentham: an Odyssey of Ideas, 1748-1792. London:

Manchester Royal Lunatic Hospital (1791) Rules for the Government of the
Lunatic Hospital and Asylum. Manchester.

Manning, F.N. (1868) Report on Lunatic Asylums. Sydney: T. Richards. [New
South Wales, Australia]

Masters, Anthony. (1977) Bedlam. London: Joseph.

McCoin, John M. (1983) Adult foster homes: their managers and residents. New
York: Human Sciences Press.

Mellett, D.J. (1982) The Prerogative of Asylumdom: social, cultural and
administrative aspects of the institutional treatment of the insane in
nineteenth century Britain. New York: Garland.

Micale, Mark. (1985) The Salpetriere in the age of Charcot: an institutional
perspective on medical history in the late nineteenth century. Journal of
Contemporary History, Vol. 20, No. 4, 703-731.

Mora, George. (1975) The 1774 ordinance for the hospitalization of the
mentally ill in Tuscany: a reassessment. Journal of the History of the
Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 11, 246-56.

Morel, Pierre et Quetel, Claude. (1977) De la maison de force a l'asile
public d'alienes: naissance du Bon-Sauveur de Caen (1734-1818). Histoire des
Sciences medicales, tome 11, 233-241.

Morrissey, J., Goldman, H. and Klerman, L. (1980) The Enduring Asylum: cycles
of institutional reform at Worcester State Hospital. New York: Grune and

O'Donoghue, Edward. (1914) The Story of Bethlehem Hospital from its
Foundations in 1247. London: T.F. Unwin.

(The) Origins of the State Mental Hospital in America. New York, Arno Press,
1973. [Facsimiles of reports published between 1837 and 1856]

Packard, Elizabeth. (1873) Modern Persecution or Insane Asylums Unveiled.
Hartford, Conn.: Case, Lockwood and Brainard. Reprinted by Arno Press, New
York, 1973.

Pailhas, B. (1902) Enfermerie diocesaine ou primatif asile d'alienes d'Albi
fonde en 1763 par Monseigneur de Choiseul. Bulletin de la Societe francaise
d'Histoire de la Medecine, tome 2, 80-95.

Parkinson, J. (1811) Mad-houses: observations on the Act for Regulating Mad-
houses. Great Britain.

Parry-Jones, William (1972) The Trade in Lunacy: a study of private madhouses
in England in the 18th and 19th centuries. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Paternoster, R. (1841) The Madhouse System. Great Britain.

Paul, G.O. (1812) Observations on the Subject of Lunatic Asylums. Gloucester.

Pinel, Philippe. (1910) Observations sur l'Hospice des Insenses de Bicetre.
Bulletin de la Societe francaise d'Histoire de la Medecine, tome 9, 177-189.

Porter, Roy (1982) Shutting People Up. Social Studies of Science, 12(3),
467- 476. [history of insanity in Europe, 17th-20th centuries.]

Primrose, D.A. (1977) The development of mental deficiency hospitals in
Scotland. Health Bulletin (Edinburgh), Vol. 35, No. 2, 63-5.

Raskin, Naomi. (1958) Non-restraints. American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol.
115, 471. [introduction of the principle of non-restraint into Russia, by
S.S. Korsakov, in 1881]

Richard, E. (1889) Histoire de l'Hopital de Bicetre. Paris.

Rive, C.G. de la. (1798) Lettre sur un nouvel etablissement pour la guerison
des alienes. Geneve.

Rogers, J. (1816) A Statement of the Cruelties, and Frauds which are
Practised in Madhouses. Great Britain.

Rothman, David. (1971) The Discovery of the Asylum: Social order and disorder
in the new republic. Boston: Little, Brown and Co.

Rothman, David. (1980) Conscience and Convenience: the asylum and its
alternatives in progressive America. Boston: Little, Brown and Co.

Rumbaut, R.D. (1972) The first psychiatric hospital of the western world.
American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 128, 1305-1309. [Spain]

Russell, William. (1945) The New York Hospital: a history of the psychiatric
service, 1771-1936. New York: Columbia University Press.

Savino, M.T. and Brody, S.A. (1966) Discharge and death rates in California
State Hospitals: 1852-1954. Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol. 15, 475-84.

Schneck, J.M. (1962) An historical outline of psychiatric non-restraint.
Diseases of the Nervous System, Vol. 23, No. 2.

Scull, Andrew. (1974) Museums of Madness: the social organization of insanity
in 19th century England. Thesis, Princeton University.

Scull, Andrew. (1979) Museums of Madness: the social organization of insanity
in nineteenth century England. London: Allen Lane.

Scull, Andrew. (Ed.) (1981) Madhouses, Mad-doctors, and Madmen: the social
history of psychiatry in the Victorian era. Philadelphia: University of
Pennsylvania Press.

Seager, C.P. (1972) Psychiatry and Architecture: review of the literature.
Salford, England: Society of Clinical Psychiatrists.

Serieux, Paul. (1933) Liste des pensionnaires de la Charite de Senlis, maison
d'alienes et de correctionnaires au XVIIIe siecle. Bulletin de la Societe
francaise d'Histoire de la Medecine, tome 27, 260-282.

Sketches in Bedlam. (1823). Great Britain.

Smandych, Russell Charles. (1981) The rise of the asylum in Upper Canada,
1830-1875: an analysis of competing perspectives on institutional development
in the nineteenth century. Ottawa: National Library. [Thesis (M.A.)--Simon
Fraser University].

Spierenburg, Peter. (Ed.) (1984) The Emergence of Carceral Institutions:
prisons, galleys and lunatic asylums, 1550-1900. Rotterdam: Erasmus
Universiteit Rotterdam.

Stark, W. (1807) Remarks on the Construction of Public Hospitals for the Cure
of Mental Derangement. Edinburgh, Scotland.

Stokes, A.B. (1967) The Toronto Psychiatric Hospital, 1926-1966. Canadian
Psychiatric Assocation Journal, Vol. 12, 521-523.

Stoller, Alan and Emmerson, R. (1968) Shower cabinet in the treatment of the
mentally ill in Victoria: historical note. Australia and New Zealand Journal
of Psychiatry, Vol. 2, 101-106.

Szasz, Thomas. (1973) The age of madness. The history of involuntary mental
hospitalization presented in selected texts. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor

Tarjan, G. (1966) The role of residential care - past, present and future.
Mental Retardation, Vol. 4, Dec., 4-8.

Thompson, Margaret. (1984) The Mad, the Bad and the Sad: psychiatric care in
the Royal Edinburgh Asylum (Morningside), 1813-1894. PhD. Thesis, Boston

Tomes, Nancy. (1984) A Generous Confidence: Thomas Story Kirkbride and the
art of asylum-keeping, 1840-1883. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tuke, D. (1892) Reform in the Treatment of the Insane: early history of the
retreat. York, England.

Tuke, S. (1813) Description of the Retreat, an Institution near York, for
Insane Persons of the Society of Friends. York, England: W. Alexander.

Tuke, S. (1815) Practical Hints on the Construction and Economy of Pauper
Lunatic Asylums. Great Britain.

Turner, T.H. (1985) The past of psychiatry: why build asylums? Lancet, No.
8457, Vol. 2, Sept. 28, 709-711.

Tyor, Peter and Zainaldin, Jamil (1979-80) Asylum and society: an approach to
institutional change. Journal of Social History, v13, 23-43.

Vallery-Radot, Pierre. (1963) Une ancienne maison de sante, monument
historique: la Folie Saint-James. Histoire Medicale, tome 12, No. 7, 13-26.

Vermorel, H. et Meylan, Andre. (1969) Cent ans de psychiatrie: essai sur
l'histoire des institutions psychiatriques en France de 1870 a nos jours.
Paris: Scarabee.

Vidart, L. et Juglard, J. (1976) A propos de l'action de Philippe Pinel a
l'Hospice de Bicetre. Annales medico-psychologiques, tome 2, No. 1, 55-59.

Walk, Alexander. (1970) Lincoln and non-restraint. British Journal of
Psychiatry, Vol. 117, 481-495.

Wielgus, K. (1976) Custodial and therapeutic patient relationships in mental
hospitals. Ethics of the Science of Medicine, Vol. 3, No. 2, 71-94.

Williams, P. (1969) The history of residential services for the mentally
handicapped. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, Vol. 11, 652-
653.Vilette, Joel. (1986) Enfance inadaptee et architecture: une histoire.

Liaisons ANEJI, No. 47-48, 17-20.

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