CODI: Cornucopia of Disability Information

Technologies and Systems For Instructional Delivery

	 Technologies and Systems For Instructional Delivery
 
			  Frank Bowe, Ph.D.
			  Hofstra University
 
Presented at the National Symposium on Educational Applications of
Technology for Persons with Sensory Disabilities, July 21, 1994, Hyatt
Regency Rochester, East Main Street, Rochester, New York.
 
These captions were generated live during the above presentation and
may contain spelling or grammatical errors common to real-time
captioning.  You are seeing exactly what the Plenary audience read as
the presentation was given.
 
This file is approximately 510 lines long.
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           >> WELCOME BACK TO THE EDUCATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON
EDUCATIONAL APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY FOR PERSONS WITH
SENSORY DISABILITIES, PRESENTED BY THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL
INSTITUTE OF THE DEAF, THE ROCHESTER INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY.  THE SYMPOSIUM IS SPONSORED BY THE UNITED STATES
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION WITH ADDITIONAL FUNDING FROM THE
M.C.I. FOUNDATION, THE BELL ATLANTIC FOUNDATION AND THE
N.E.C. FOUNDATION OF AMERICA.  THIS PLENARY SESSION FEATURES
DR. FRANK BOWE ON THE TOPIC OF TECHNOLOGIES AND SYSTEMS FOR
INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY.
           >> ROSS STUCKLESS: GOOD MORNING.  WELCOME TO THE
OPENING SESSION.  I HAVE A MESSAGE HERE I WOULD LIKE TO READ
FROM GREGG VANDERHEIDEN.  HE'S WITH US TODAY AND CAN ADD, AS
YOU WISH, AS YOU SEE HIM TODAY, TO THE INFORMATION HERE.
THERE WILL BE A MEETING TONIGHT AT 8  P.M. TO LOOK AT
STRATEGIES FOR BUILDING ACCESS INTO THE NEXT GENERATION OF
INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND THE ELECTRONIC SUPER-HIGHWAY.  THIS
WILL BE A PLANNING MEETING TO DETERMINE HOW BEST TO
COORDINATE EFFORTS, WHO TO INVOLVE AND HOW TO BEST GET INPUT
FROM ALL PARTIES OVER THE NEXT TWELVE TO 18 MONTHS.  ONCE
AGAIN, THAT'S AT 8  P.M. THIS EVENING IN THE BUFFET
BREAKFAST ROOM, RIGHT NEXT YEAR.  GREGG HAS BEEN KIND ENOUGH
TO GIVE ME HIS ROOM NUMBER IF YOU WANT TO CONTACT HIM IN THE
MEANTIME.  IT'S 1917.  IT'S A GREAT PLEASURE FOR ME TO
INTRODUCE OUR PLENARY SPEAKER THIS MORNING.  WE WERE HAVING
BREAKFAST A SHORT TIME -- FRANK AND I ARE OLD FRIENDS -- AND
HE SAID "WOULD YOU BE SURE THIS TIME TO GIVE ME A NICE
INTRODUCTION?"  I SAID "ABSOLUTELY."  IN BETWEEN THE TIME I
WALKED FROM THERE TO HERE I LOST A FILLING, SO IT MAY BE
DIFFICULT.  I'M BEGINNING TO FEEL IT ALREADY.  BUT WE HAVE
AN EXCELLENT DEAF DENTIST IN TOWN WHO I THINK I CAN GET IN
TO SEE.  INSTEAD OF SIMPLY REPEATING WHAT IS IN THE PROGRAM
ABOUT FRANK, LET ME ADD TO WHAT IS ALREADY THERE AND WHAT
YOU HAVE PROBABLY READ.  I NORMALLY WOULD NOT INDICATE WHERE
A PERSON RECEIVED HIS BACHELOR'S DEGREE UNLESS IT'S SUMMA
CUM LAUDE OR SOMETHING.  FRANK IS A GRADUATE OF WESTERN
MARYLAND COLLEGES WITH A BACHELOR'S DEGREE IN ENGLISH, SUMMA
CUM LAUDE.  HE HAS A MASTER'S DEGREE FROM GALLAUDET
UNIVERSITY IN SPECIAL EDUCATION.  HIS PH.D. IN SESSION DARE
PSYCHOLOGY WITH A SECONDARY RESEARCH FOCUS, AND HOLDS AN
HONORARY DOCTORATE FROM GALLAUDET UNIVERSITY.  FRANK HAS
MANY, MANY PUBLICATIONS.  I THINK THE PROGRAM MAKES
REFERENCE TO 27 BOOKS AND INDEED I THINK HE HAS.  I WOULD
LIKE TO HIGHLIGHT SOME OF THE PUBLICATIONS, BOTH BOOKS AND
ARTICLES, TO GIVE YOU A FLAVOR OF THE KIND OF WORK HE'S BEEN
DOING, PARTICULARLY RELEVANT TO OUR NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM.  THE
FIRST BOOK THAT HE WROTE THAT I BECAME A STRONG USER OF,
BACK IN THE EARLY '80S WAS A BOOK ON PERSONAL COMPUTERS AND
SPECIAL NEEDS.  FOR THAT FRANK WON THE BOOK AWARD FOR THE
PRESIDENT'S COMMITTEE ON EMPLOYMENT OF PEOPLE WITH
DISABILITIES.  HE IS THE AUTHOR OF "EQUAL RIGHTS FOR
AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES," "THE ACCOMMODATION HANDBOOK,"
"ACCESS TO TRANSPORTATION," "COALITION BUILDING,"
"TECHNOLOGIES THAT HEAR AND TALK," "ACCESS TO THE
INFORMATION AGE," "WHY SENIORS DON'T USE TECHNOLOGY" AND
"MAKING COMPUTERS ACCESSIBLE TO DISABLED PEOPLE.  AMONG HIS
NUMEROUS NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL APPOINTMENTS, INCLUDING
ONE TO THE UNITED NATIONS, I WOULD LIKE TO TOUCH ON JUST A
VERY FEW OF THESE WHICH AGAIN I THINK ARE PARTICULARLY
SALIENT, NOT ONLY TO FRANK'S CAREER BUT TO THE WELFARE OF
ALL PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES.  HE WAS THE FIRST EXECUTIVE
DIRECTOR OF THE AMERICAN COALITION OF CITIZENS WITH
DISABILITIES, HOLDING THAT POST FOR A NUMBER OF YEARS IN THE
'80S.  FOR FOUR YEARS HE WAS DIRECTOR OF RESEARCH FOR THE
U.S. ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION COMPLIANCE BOARD IN
WASHINGTON.  HE HAS BEEN A CONSULTANT TO THE U.S. CONGRESS
OFFICE OF TECHNOLOGY ASSISTANCE, CONSULTANT TO THE U.S.
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY.  PERHAPS THE MOST VISIBLE AND POSSIBLY THE MOST
INFLUENTIAL ROLE HE HAS PLAYED RELATIVE TO DEAFNESS
SPECIFICALLY WAS HIS APPOINTMENT BACK IN THE MID-'80S AS
CHAIRMAN OF THE CONGRESSIONAL COMMISSION ON EDUCATION OF THE
DEAF.  THIS WAS A -- VERY MUCH A BLUE RIBBON COMMISSION, AND
IT WAS MY PLEASURE TO BE ASKED TO SERVE BY NTID AS ITS
LIAISON TO THE COMMISSION THROUGHOUT THAT PERIOD.  SO I HAVE
THE OPPORTUNITY TO SIT IN ON VIRTUALLY EVERY PUBLIC HEARING
AND EVERY PUBLIC MEETING THAT WAS CONDUCTED UNDER FRANK'S
CHAIRMANSHIP, AND LET ME SIMPLY SAY THAT HE FULFILLED HIS
ROLE WITH DISTINCTION.  THE 1998 REPORT OF THE COMMISSION
VERY MUCH BEARS HIS IMPLEMENTURE.  IT'S TITLED "TOWARD
EQUALITY," AND IT'S SPECIFICALLY RELATING TO PEOPLE WITH
HEARING IMPAIRMENTS.  HE ALSO, AS PART OF THAT, TAKES A VERY
STRONG POSITION, AND I SEE "HE" BUT THE COMMITTEE ITSELF
TAKES A STRONG POSITION ON TECHNOLOGIES IN THE FUTURE FOR
PEOPLE WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENTS.  IT'S A GREAT PLEASURE FOR
ME TO WELCOME FRANK.  HE'LL SPEAK TO US ON THE TOPIC OF
TECHNOLOGIES AND SYSTEMS FOR INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY.  FRANK?
(APPLAUSE..)
          >> DR. BOWE:
          >> DR. BOWE: THANK YOU.  CAN YOU HEAR ME?  YES,
NO, MAYBE?  I DON'T KNOW?  NONE OF THE ABOVE?  ALL OF THE
ABOVE?  (LAUGHTER)   ROSS MENTIONED A BOOK I WROTE CALLED
"PERSONAL COMPUTERS AND SPECIAL NEEDS" WHICH WAS PUBLISHED
IN 1984.  EVERY WORD IS WRONG, WHICH SHOWS YOU HOW THINGS
HAVE CHANGED.  IF YOU PICK UP THAT WORK, GOD FORBID, DON'T
READ IT!  (LAUGHTER)   ROSS AND I HAVE WORKED TOGETHER
FOR MANY YEARS AND I CAME TO ROCHESTER SPECIFICALLY TO TALK
WITH HIM AND LEARNED A LOT FROM HIM.  IT'S AN HONOR FOR ME
TO BE INTRODUCED BY HIM.  ONE THING HE HAS NEVER TOLD ME IS
WHAT HIS FIRST NAME IS.  E. ROSS STUCKLESS, PH.D., AND I
HAVE NEVER LEARNED WHAT THE "E" STANDS FOR, SO I HAVE
BUSINESS TO CONDUCT BEFORE I LEAVE TOWN THIS AFTERNOON.
(LAUGHTER)   I HAVE BEEN ASKED TO TALK ABOUT TECHNOLOGY
SYSTEMS.  I PLAN TO DO THAT AND TO GIVE YOU GUYS A CHANCE TO
ASK SOME QUESTIONS.  WHEN I FINISH TALKING, IF YOU WISH TO
ASK A QUESTION, GO TO THE MICROPHONE OVER THERE.  I WISH TO
BEGIN BY TALKING ABOUT THE FACT THAT LARRY SCADDEN AND I
LAST NIGHT WERE TALKING WITH GREGG VANDERHEIDEN, AND LARRY
AND I BOTH SPOKE ON THE PHONE A FEW WEEKS AGO IN WASHINGTON,
AND LARRY, OF COURSE, IS BLIND, AND HE TOLD ME THIS MORNING
HE HAS BEEN BLIND SINCE HE WAS FOUR.  I HAVE BEEN DEAF SINCE
I WAS THREE.  THE TWO OF US GREW UP IN A TIME WHEN THERE WAS
NO TECHNOLOGY WORTH TALKING ABOUT.  WE WERE TALKING ABOUT
HOW IT'S KIND OF AMAZING THAT WE MADE IT THROUGH THE PUBLIC
SCHOOLS DESPITE THE FACT THAT THERE WAS NO TECHNOLOGY TO
ACCOMMODATE US.  BOTH OF US HAVE CONTINUED OUR EDUCATIONS
SINCE THEN.  WE BOTH HAVE PH.D.'S.  WE HAVE TO IN THE KIND
OF WORK WE DO, COLLECTING INFORMATION, ANALYZING IT,
REPORTING IT.  THIS IS CALLED "THE KNOWLEDGE AGE, THE
INFORMATION AGE," AND THIS IS WHAT WE DO.  WE BOTH USE
TECHNOLOGIES FOR THAT TODAY AND TOMORROW WE'RE GOING TO USE
SOMETHING DIFFERENT THAT I'M GOING TO REFER TO AS "SYSTEMS."
SO WHAT I WANT TO TALK WITH YOU ABOUT TODAY IS THE MOVEMENT
WE HAVE MADE, LARRY AND I, FROM PEOPLE TO MACHINES AND HOW
WE'RE NOW MOVING TOWARD A SYSTEM, AND HOW THAT AFFECTS
EDUCATION OF DEAF STUDENTS AND BLIND STUDENTS, TODAY AND
INTO THE FUTURE.  WHEN LARRY AND I WERE YOUNG, WE DEVELOPED
INTERACTION WITH INFORMATION, MEDIATED BY OTHER PEOPLE.
LARRY HAD TO USE BRAILLE AND HE HAD A LITTLE PEN -- NOT TO
ESTABLISH PEOPLE WITH, BUT TO TAKE NOTES -- (LAUGHTER) --
          PEOPLE HAD TO PRODUCE THAT BRAILLE FOR HIM.
PEOPLE HAD TO READ BOOKS, TRANSLATE THEM TO BRAILLE, READ
THEM INTO A TAPE RECORDER -- VERY PEOPLE INTENSIVE, VERY
LABOR INTENSIVE.  THAT WAS TRUE FOR ME, TOO.  DON'T LET
WORDS FOOL YOU.  I'M AN OLD -- DON'T LET ROSS FOOL YOU.  I'M
AN OLD MAN AND I AM ABOUT TO PROVE IT.  I WAS ABOUT 20 WHEN
I MADE MY FIRST PHONE CALL.  I WAS IN MY 30'S BEFORE I
WATCHED MY FIRST TV PROGRAM AND UNDERSTOOD.  THIS MEANS
VIRTUALLY EVERY INTERACTION I HAD, HAD TO BE MEDIATED BY
OTHER PEOPLE.  IF WE WERE WATCHING TV, HEARING PEOPLE HAD TO
STOP AND EXPLAIN TO ME WHAT WAS GOING ON.  PEOPLE WANTED TO
TELEPHONE ME; SOMEBODY ELSE TOOK THE CALL.  I CAN STILL
REMEMBER SOME OF THOSE PHONE CALLS.  IF I WAS CALLING MY
MOTHER, IF I WAS CALLING FOR A DATE, WHATEVER, IT WAS DONE
BY SOMEBODY ELSE.  I CAN STILL REMEMBER BEING IN MY DORM
ROOM STUDYING FOR AN EXAM AND SOMEBODY COMES IN AND SAID
"YOU JUST GOT A PHONE CALL FROM STEVE.  YOU'RE GOING TO MEET
HIM AT THE LIBRARY AT 8 O'CLOCK TO GIVE HIM SOME TUTORING."
AND I SAID "OH, I AM?"  THIS PERSON MADE ALL THESE DECISIONS
FOR ME BECAUSE IT WAS JUST TOO MUCH TROUBLE TO INVOLVE ME IN
THE PHONE CALL.  I REMEMBER BEING 14 OR 15 TRYING HARD TO
BLEND IN LIKE ALL 14 AND 15-YEAR-OLDS.  PEOPLE WERE WATCHING
TV SHOWS AND MOVIES IN THOSE DAYS, AND I WAS TRYING TO DO
THAT, TOO.  I REMEMBER STANDING IN FRONT OF THE TV SET FOR
FOUR AND A HALF HOURS, COMPLETELY UNABLE TO LIP-READ EVEN
ONE WORD AND GETTING FRUSTRATED BECAUSE I'M A GOOD
LIP-READER AND I CAN USUALLY PICK OUT A FEW WORDS HERE AND
THERE.  BUT A HALF HOUR WENT BY AND I UNDERSTOOD NOTHING.
FINALLY MY FATHER CAME HOME FROM WORK, STOOD THERE FOR TWO
SECONDS AND SAID, "HERE'S THE PROBLEM.  THEY'RE SPEAKING IN
FRENCH."  (LAUGHTER)   "IT'S BEING DUBBED INTO ENGLISH."
(LAUGHTER)   LIFE IS A LITTLE BIT INTERESTING WHEN YOU'RE
DEAF OR YOU'RE BLIND.  TODAY LARRY AND I DON'T DO ANYWHERE
NEAR AS MUCH OF THAT.  WE USED TO RELY ALMOST ALL THE TIME
ON OTHER PEOPLE.  TODAY WE DON'T.  WE RELY ON MACHINES AND
WE HAVE THE MACHINES AT HOME AND IN OUR OFFICES.  I CAN GIVE
YOU A GOOD EXAMPLE.  WHEN I FIRST DID SOME CONSULTING
BUSINESS IN THE EARLY 19 '80S, 1981, 1982, I WAS DOING
CONSULTING, AND HIRING AN INTERPRETER, FULL-TIME INTERPRETER
TO SIT IN MY OFFICE AND TAKE CARE OF THE PHONE FOR ME.  IT
WAS AN EXTRAORDINARY EXPENSE BUT PEOPLE IN BUSINESS PICK UP
THE PHONE AND THEY CALL, SO SOMEBODY HAD TO BE THERE TO
ANSWER THE PHONE.  I DON'T DO THAT ANYMORE.  I HAVE A FAX
MACHINE AT HOME; I'M ON THE INTERNET, AND I DON'T EVEN HAVE
ANY LIGHTS IN MY OFFICE ANY MORE BECAUSE I COMPLETELY IGNORE
THE TELEPHONE.  IF THEY WANT ME, THEY USE THE FAX AND SEND
ME A FAX SAYING "FRANK, PLEASE CALL ME."  ONLY SOMETIMES NOT
SO POLITE.  I GET E-MAIL FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD.  IT'S
RIGHT NOW 100% VISUAL, SO I HAVE NO PROBLEMS WITH INTERNET.
I CAN COMMUNICATE WITH PEOPLE WITH ANY DISABILITY, AND I DO.
I HAVE REGULAR COMMUNICATIONS WITH PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND,
PEOPLE WHO ARE BOTH DEAF AND BLIND, AND IT'S ALL COMPLETELY
ACCESSIBLE TO ME WITH NO HUMAN INTERACTION AT ALL.  AS A
MATTER OF FACT, TODAY ALMOST 30% OF AMERICAN HOMES HAVE A
FAX MACHINE.  THAT'S GOING TO SURPRISE A LOT OF PEOPLE.  LET
ME TELL YOU SOMETHING ABOUT THAT.  30% OF HOMES.  AND
VIRTUALLY ALL BUSINESSES HAVE A FAX MACHINE.  AT HOME I HAVE
A FAX MACHINE THAT COST ME ABOUT $200, BUT I ALSO HAVE A
FAX/MODEM BOARD IN MY COMPUTER THAT COST $50.  BECAUSE IT'S
ONLY $50 AND BECAUSE IT'S PACKAGED WITH THE COMPUTER, MORE
PERSONAL COMPUTERS THAT GO OUT OF THE STORE TODAY HAVE THE
FAX/MODEM BOARD BUILT IN, SO THAT HELPS EXPLAIN 30% OF THE
HOMES.  THE GREAT THING FOR ME IS THAT I CAN RECEIVE FAXES
FROM ORDINARY PEOPLE AND NOT JUST BUSINESSES.  IT'S JUST
TERRIFIC FOR ME.  LARRY, MEANWHILE, USES THE SAME
TECHNOLOGY, BUT HE'S ABLE TO GET AT THEM IN WHATEVER MEDIUM
HE WANTS TO.  HE CAN GET ON INTERNET AND LISTEN TO
EVERYTHING I READ.  NOW, WITH SPEECH SYNTHESIS, A HEARING
PERSON CAN LISTEN.  IF I SEND INFORMATION TO HIM, I TYPE IT,
I SEND IT; HE GETS IT, HE LISTENS TO IT, AND NEITHER ONE OF
US HAVE TO HAVE ANY HUGE ASSISTANCE -- HAVE ANY HUMAN
ASSISTANCE IN THAT COMMUNICATION.  HE CAN ALSO TAKE A
DOCUMENT OR A BOOK AND PUT IT ON A SCANNER, HAVE THE
DOCUMENT RUNNING IT INTO THE COMPUTER.  SO EVEN SOMETHING
THAT IS PRINTED NOW IS ACCESSIBLE TO HIM WITH NO HUMAN
INTERACTION.  I'M TRYING TO EMPHASIZE THIS.  THE BIGGEST
PROBLEM THAT LARRY HAD, AND WE TALK ABOUT IT EVERY
CONFERENCE THAT WE GO TO, IS THE GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE,
G.U.I., THAT YOU FIND WITH ELECTRONIC MEDIA.  FOR EXAMPLE,
PRODIGY.  I GUARANTEE HE'S NOT ON PRODIGY.  I CAN GUARANTEE
HE'S NOT ON AMERICA ONLINE OR OTHERS BECAUSE THE GRAPHIC
USER INTERFACES CANNOT WORK WITH A SPEECH SYNTHESIZER, AND
IS A VERY BIG PROBLEM FOR HIM.  HOWEVER, THE TECHNOLOGY
THAT'S NOW AVAILABLE, SOMETHING VERY CLOSE TO MY HEART, THE
SCANNER HAS DROPPED ABOUT 90% IN SIZE AND WEIGHT AND 80% IN
PRICE OVER THE LAST FEW YEARS.  YOU CAN CARRY THIS WITH YOU.
IT WILL READ "THE NEW YORK TIMES," "PLAYBOY," "PENTHOUSE,"
"WALL STREET JOURNAL," READ IT ALL OUT LOUD FOR YOU.  NOW,
WHAT IS NOW HAPPENING WITH ME AND WITH LARRY, WHAT I HAVE
DESCRIBED FOR YOU, WE HAVE TECHNOLOGY, THE TECHNOLOGIES IN
THE OFFICE, AND WE ARE RELYING ON THEM.  THE BIG SHIFT IS
THAT WE ARE NO LONGER RELYING AS MUCH ON PEOPLE.  HOVER   --
HOWEVER, THIS IS NOW BEGINNING TO CHANGE AND WE ARE NOW
MOVING TOWARD A RELIANCE ON SYSTEMS.  LET ME EXPLAIN THAT
VERY BRIEFLY.  I AM GOING TO TRY TO DO THAT BY TALKING ABOUT
SOMETHING THAT MOST OF YOU KNOW ABOUT -- RELAYS.  MOST OF
YOU HAVE USED RELAYS, DUEL-PARTY RELAYS.  I USE THEM, OF
COURSE, WHEN I CALL HEARING PEOPLE, AND MY STUDENTS USE THEM
TO CALL ME.  THE RELAY RIGHT NOW IS MEDIATED BY PEOPLE.  IN
NEW YORK STATE THEY ARE OUTSIDE OF ALBANY, CLIFFORD PARK,
SOME TOWN OUTSIDE OF ALBANY.  THEY ARE HUMAN BEINGS,
OPERATORS MOST OF THEM, LISTENING TO WHATEVER THE HEARING
PERSON SAYS AND THEY'RE TYPING AND THEN THEY'RE SPEAK OUT
LOUD WHATEVER I SAID -- WHATEVER I TYPE, ACTUALLY.  THIS IS
GOING BACK AND FORTH NOW.  THIS RELAY IS NOW COSTING,
ACCORDING TO AT&T, ABOUT A QUARTER OF A BILLION DOLLARS A
YEAR FOR ALL 50 STATES BECAUSE IT'S 24 HOURS A DAY, 7 DAYS A
WEEK.  EVERY FOUR -- IT COSTS THIS MUCH BECAUSE THEY HAVE
THREE SHIFTS OF OPERATORS, MUST HAVE AIR CONDITIONING,
HEALTH INSURANCE, COFFEE BREAKS...
          (LAUGHTER)   IT ADDS UP!  $1 BILLION EVERY FOUR
YEARS WOULD BUY A TREMENDOUS AMOUNT OF TECHNOLOGY.  SO WITH
TECHNOLOGY, THEY CAN DO WHAT THE OPERATOR NOW DOES.  NOW,
YOU ARE SEEING CAPTIONING RIGHT NOW.  THIS IS NOT BEING DONE
BY A MACHINE ITSELF; IT'S BEING DONE BY A HUMAN BEING WHO IS
TYPING INTO, OF COURSE, YOUR BASIC STENOGRAPHY MACHINE, WHICH
UNDERSTANDS THE STENOGRAPHIC SYMBOLS AND TRANSLATES THEM TO 
ENGLISH  IT IS VERY LABOR INTENSIVE.  THE PROGRAMS I WATCH
ON TELEVISION COSTS ABOUT $2,000 PER HOUR TO CAPTION BECAUSE
OF ALL OF THE WORK BY PEOPLE.  THAT'S VERY EXPENSIVE.
THOUGH ONCE IT'S CAPTIONED, IT'S CAPTIONED WITH NO FURTHER
COST INVOLVED.  NOW, OF COURSE, AS MOST OF YOU KNOW, ALL TV
SETS MEASURING 13 INCHES OR LARGER THAT WERE MADE OR SOLD IN
THIS COUNTRY SINCE JULY OF 1993, MEANING ABOUT ONE YEAR AGO,
ARE READY TO RECEIVE CAPTIONS, AND THAT IS NOW, OF COURSE,
MAKING CAPTIONS MUCH, MUCH MORE READILY AVAILABLE.  I HAVE
PARENTS OF YOUNG CHILDREN WHO TURN THIS CAPTIONING ON EVERY
SATURDAY MORNING DURING THE CARTOONS SO THAT THEIR CHILDREN
WILL LEARN SOMETHING WHILE THEY WATCH THE CARTOONS.  EITHER
HEARING CHILDREN OR DEAF CHILDREN, BUT THEY ARE LEARNING TO
READ WHILE THEY WATCH THEIR CARTOONS OR SESAME STREET OR
WHATEVER.  WE HAVE LARRY GOLDBERG HERE FROM ONE OF THE
PREMIER CAPTIONING OFFICES, WGBH IN BOSTON.  AS I WATCH
CAPTIONING, LARRY SCADDEN NEEDS A VIDEO DESCRIPTION.  THAT'S
ALSO VERY PEOPLE INTENSIVE AND COSTS ABOUT $2,000 TO $5,000
PER HOUR.  WHAT HAPPENS IS YOU HAVE PEOPLE ON THE SCREEN
MOVING AROUND, DOING THINGS, PICKING THINGS UP.  NONE OF
THAT IS REFLECTED IN THE DIALOGUE.  SO SOMEONE SPEAKS A
DESCRIPTION OF THAT ACTION, SPEAKS IT OUT LOUD, AND LARRY CAN
LISTEN TO IT AND HE HEARS THE DESCRIPTIVE PARTS AND THE
DIALOGUE.  FOR EXAMPLE, ON "MOONLIGHTING," WE MIGHT HAVE A
SCENE WHERE DAVID IS CHASING MADLY AROUND.  THERE WOULD BE
A VIDEO DESCRIPTION THAT LARRY WOULD HEAR THAT DAVE IS
CHASING MADLY AROUND THE DESK.  WHERE WE'RE NOW GOING IS
TOWARD A SYSTEM WHERE THE NETWORK WILL DO SOME OF THESE
THINGS AND IT WOULD NOT BE SO PEOPLE INTENSIVE.  I WANT TO
DESCRIBE THIS VERY BRIEFLY FOR YOU.  THE NETWORK OF THE
FUTURE WILL HEAR AND IT WILL TALK.  WE'RE SEEING SOME OF
THIS ALREADY, AND FOR EXAMPLE, THE NYNEX CORPORATION
INTRODUCED SOMETHING CALLED VOICE DIALING WHERE YOU PICK UP
THE PHONE AND SAY SOMETHING LIKE "GREGG VANDERHEIDEN," AND
AND A COMPUTER PICKS UP THE PHONE AND DIALS IT.  GREGG'S
PHONE STARTS RINGING ABOUT FIVE SECONDS LATER.  THAT'S AN
EXAMPLE OF SPEECH RECOGNITION IN THE NETWORK.  I WORKED WITH
NYNEX ON THAT BEFORE IT WAS ANNOUNCED BECAUSE THERE WAS SOME
CONCERN WOULD IT WORK WITH DIFFERENT PEOPLE'S VOICES.  FOR
EXAMPLE, I HAVE THE FAMILY SCANDINAVIAN ACCENT.  (LAUGHTER)
AND LARRY, HE WOULDN'T BELIEVE LAST WEEK I WENT TO THE
GROCERY STORE TO DO GROCERY SHOPPING WITH THE FAMILY.  I
WENT BACK AND ASKED FOR SOME CHANGE AND THE GUY STARES AT ME
AND SAID "YOU AREN'T FROM RUSSIA, ARE YOU?"  THERE WAS SOME
QUESTION.  I SAID "YES, WE ARE PLANNING TO USE THIS CHANGE
TO INVADE THE UNITED STATES."  (LAUGHTER)   WOULD THE SPEECH
TECHNOLOGY BE ABLE TO UNDERSTAND ME?  THEN YOU HAVE PEOPLE 
WITH CEREBRAL PALSY, WHO SOUND SLOW OR SLURRED SOMETIMES.  WE
HAVE PEOPLE WITH ALL KINDS OF DISABILITIES, SPEECH IMPEDIMENTS, 
CEREBRAL PALSY, EVERYTHING.  AND IT WORKED WITH ALL OF THEM.  SO
FIRST TIME IT WORKED BEAUTIFULLY WITH ANY VOICE, AND WE HAD
A LITTLE BOY WHO WAS TEN YEARS OLD AND STARTED TO PLAY SOME
GAMES WITH US.  HE WANTED TO PROGRAM THE NETWORK TO DIAL HIS
GRANDMOTHER.  FIRST HE DIALED THE TELEPHONE NUMBER HIMSELF
AND PUSHED THE STAR KEY.  HE HELD THE PHONE IN FRONT OF THE
DOG, AND OF COURSE THE DOG BARKED.  I THEN PROGRAMMED THE
STYLING SO THAT WHEN THE DARK BARKS, GRANDMA'S PHONE RINGS.
(LAUGHTER)   IF IT WILL WORK WITH THE DOG BARKING, IT WILL
WORK FOR ANYBODY.  AT&T WILL ALLOW YOU TO SPEAK THE
NUMBER -- WILL ALLOW YOU TO SPEAK THE NUMBER, AND M.C.I.
WILL LET YOU SPEAK SOMEBODY'S NAME.  WE ALL KNOW THE FAMOUS
COMMERCIALS WE HAVE SEEN ON THAT.  I HAVE ALWAYS BEEN AN AT&T
CUSTOMER, AND THEY HAVE ALWAYS BEEN MY CHOICE FOR LONG
DISTANCE, EXCEPT A FEW YEARS AGO WHEN THEY MOVED OUT A NEW
SLOGAN, AND THEIR NEW SLOGAN WAS "THE MORE YOU HEAR, THE
BETTER WE SOUND."  NOW, I DECIDED AT THAT POINT TO CHANGE MY
LONG DISTANCE CARRIER.  (LAUGHTER)   AND I CHOSE SPRINT.  I
CHOSE SPRINT BECAUSE I ALWAYS WANTED TO HEAR A PIN DROP.
(LAUGHTER)   HAD THAT ONE FOR OVER A YEAR AND THEN WE
SWITCHED BACK TO AT&T AGAIN.  NOW, TODAY NETWORKS AND SPEECH
RECOGNITION SYSTEMS THAT WE HAVE BEEN TALKING ABOUT CAN
UNDERSTAND ONE PERSON OR A COUPLE, BUT IN A FEW YEARS WE
WILL HAVE VERY SOPHISTICATED SYSTEMS THAT WILL UNDERSTAND
ANYONE AND ALMOST ANY WORDS.  I'M A UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR, SO
NATURALLY IT OCCURS TO ME: HOW WILL THIS AFFECT ME?  I CAN
IMAGINE MY CLASS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF HOFSTRA BEING -- MY
CLASSROOM AT THE UNIVERSITY OF HOFSTRA BEING WIRED WITH
FIBER OPTICS CABLES, WHICH CARRIES VOICE AND DATA IN THE
SAME LINE STATEMENT.  IN FACT, THEY CAN CARRY 12,000 PHONE
CALLS AT ONE TIME.  SO WE WOULD HAVE VIDEO AVAILABLE, AND
THAT MEANS I CAN STAND IN MY CLASSROOM IN HOFSTRA, NOT A
SPECIALLY-EQUIPPED ROOM LIKE THIS BUT IN A NORMAL CLASSROOM
AND MY STUDENTS CAN BE ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD AND THEY WILL
SEE ME OR HEAR ME AND IF I WRITE ANYTHING ON A
PRESSURE-SENSITIVE BOARD, THEY WILL SEE THAT, TOO, BECAUSE A
FULL MOTION VIDEO, FULL VOICE AND DATA ARE BEING TRANSMITTED
TO THEM.  NOW, IN THEIR HOME THEY WOULD HAVE A CAMCORDER, A
LITTLE CAMERA FOCUSED ON THEM.  IF THEY ASK ME A QUESTION,
WE ALL HEAR IT IN THE CLASSROOM, WE SEE THEM.  THIS IS
TWO-WAY, INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA, AND IN EFFECT THEY ARE IN
MY CLASS.  IN EFFECT, THEY'RE RIGHT THERE WITH ME REGARDLESS
OF WHERE THEY MAY BE.  NOW, WHAT I'M GOING TO DO THERE IS I
AM GOING TO BE USING THIS NETWORK FOR SOMETHING ELSE.  TODAY
WHEN I TEACH, I HAVE AN INTERPRETER IN MY CLASS, AND THE
ONLY THING THE INTERPRETER DOES IS HANDLE THE QUESTIONS FROM
MY STUDENTS.  I HAVE ABOUT 100 STUDENTS EVERY SEMESTER.  ALL
OF THEM ARE HEARING STUDENTS.  I HAVE ONE OR TWO DEAF
STUDENTS.  I NEED THEM TO TRANSLATE FOR ME.  IN THE NEAR
FUTURE, I'M NOT GOING TO NEED THAT.  I AM GOING TO HAVE MY
CLASSROOM CONNECTED ON THE PHONE LINE SO ANYTHING MY
STUDENTS SAY WILL GO INTO THE NETWORK, WHICH WILL TRANSLATE
THE TEXT AND COME BACK TO ME FOR ME TO READ THE QUESTION ON
THE MONITOR.  NOW, I CAN IMAGINE THE TECHNOLOGY BEING USED
BY ANY DEAF STUDENT AT ANY OF THE NATION'S UNIVERSITIES,
3,000 OF THEM, ANY OF THE 15,000 SCHOOL DISTRICTS, WILL BE
ABLE TO GO INTO ANY CLASS IN ANY SUBJECT AND BE ABLE,
THROUGH THE PHONE NETWORK, TO HAVE A COMPLETE TRANSCRIPT OF
THAT LECTURE APPEAR ON A MONITOR.  IF HE WANTED A PRINTOUT,
HE MIGHT BECOME THE MOST POPULAR STUDENT IN THE CLASS
BECAUSE HE HAS THE ONLY COMPLETE SET OF NOTES OF THE
LECTURE.  THAT IS GOING TO COME AT SOME POINT, MAYBE FIVE OR
TEN YEARS DOWN THE ROAD.  THE ADVANTAGES TO THIS ARE MANY.
THE FIRST ADVANTAGE: ALL OF THE COMPUTER HARDWARE, SOFTWARE,
FIRMWARE, COMPATIBILITY STUFF, IS IN THE NETWORK.  WE DON'T
KNOW HOW TO CABLE, HOW TO INTERFACE, HOW TO MAKE IT WORK.
ALL WE DO IS PICK UP THE PHONE.  THE PEOPLE WHO WORK FOR THE
TELEPHONE COMPANY -- IN YOUR CASE NYNEX -- OR WHOEVER, THEY
WILL UPGRADE AND PUT IN MORE POWERFUL VOICE RECOGNITION
VOICE SYNTHESIS THAT WILL DO ALL THE INTERFACING NECESSARY.
NUMBER TWO: IT WILL BE MUCH, MUCH CHEAPER THAN ANY OTHER
ALTERNATIVE.  LET ME ILLUSTRATE THAT FOR YOU.  WE TALKED
ABOUT THE COST OF USING PEOPLE.  THE RELAY TODAY IS A
QUARTER OF A BILLION DOLLARS A YEAR BECAUSE OF PEOPLE.  IF
YOU HAD THE TECHNOLOGY IN THE NETWORK, THERE'S NO ADDITIONAL
COSTS.  WE WON'T NEED A BUILDING; WE WON'T NEED COFFEE
BREAKS AND HEALTH PLANS FOR THEM.  THIRD BIG BENEFIT: THE
TECHNOLOGY BECOMES AVAILABLE TO ANYBODY FOR ANY REASON.
GOOD EXAMPLE, YOU HAVE HERE IN THIS BUILDING TODAY PEOPLE
FROM XEROX, WHO ARE HAVING A MEETING.  IMAGINE THE XEROX
SALES REPRESENTATIVE IS OUT ON THE ROAD, CAN PICK UP AN
ORDINARY TELEPHONE, NOT A COMPUTER OR A MODEM BUT AN
ORDINARY TELEPHONE, AND CAN CALL INTO THE COMPUTER IN
STANFORD, CONNECTICUT, CAN TALK TO THE COMPUTER, LISTEN TO
THE ACCOUNT, CAN SPEAK NEW ORDER INFORMATION, CAN LISTEN TO
THE CONFIRMATION, HANG UP -- FROM AN ORDINARY TELEPHONE,
FROM A CARTEL PHONE.  THAT IS GOING TO BE THE SAME
TECHNOLOGY THAT ALLOWS ME AND LARRY TO DO SYSTEMS CONVERSION
OF INFORMATION.  FOUR BIG BENEFITS: PEOPLE LIKE LARRY AND I
BECAME DEAF AND BLIND VERY YOUNG.  IT'S NOT A BIG ISSUE WITH
US; WE DON'T REMEMBER REALLY.  I KNOW I DON'T.  I SUPPOSE HE
DOESN'T.  I DON'T REALLY REMEMBER BEING A HEARING PERSON.  I
HAVE SOME VAGUE SUBCONSCIOUS MEMORY, BUT IT'S NOT A BIG
THING.  HOWEVER, TWO-THIRDS OF ALL PEOPLE WHO BECAME BLIND
BECAME BLIND MUCH LATER IN LIFE, 50'S OR 60'S, 70'S.
TWO-THIRDS OF ALL PEOPLE WHO BECAME DEAF BECAME DEAF LATER
IN LIFE.  THESE PEOPLE ARE VERY DIFFERENT FROM LARRY AND
MYSELF.  THEY DON'T WANT SPECIAL EQUIPMENT; THEY DON'T WANT
SPECIAL HELP; THEY ARE VERY EMBARRASSED ABOUT THE SPECIAL
HELP.  MY MOTHER LOST HER HEARING IN HER 70'S AND IT TOOK ME
FIVE YEARS TO CONVINCE HER TO GET A CAPTIONER ON THE TV SET.
FOR FOUR OR FIVE YEARS SHE KEPT COMPLAINING THAT THE
CAPTIONS WOULD LOOK DIFFERENT AND NEIGHBORS WOULD KNOW SHE
HAD A HEARING LOSS; SHE DIDN'T WANT TO.  THE VAST MAJORITY
OF PEOPLE WHO ARE DEAF AND BLIND DON'T WANT SPECIAL
EQUIPMENT.  IF YOU PUT THIS SPECIAL STUFF INTO THE NETWORK,
YOU HIDE IT, AND YOU DON'T FORCE PEOPLE TO USE STILL MY
ADVERTISED EQUIPMENT THAT THEY -- TO USE STIGMATIZED
EQUIPMENT THAT THEY DON'T WANT OTHER PEOPLE TO SEE.  THE
TECHNOLOGY WILL HAVE LIMITATIONS.  I CAN'T IMAGINE IT DOING
VIDEO DESCRIPTION; I JUST CAN'T.  I CAN'T IMAGINE ANY
SOFTWARE ABLE TO LOOK AT A MOVING IMAGE, DETRACT MEANINGFUL
INFORMATION FROM IT AND SPEAK THAT OUT FOR LARRY TO LISTEN
TO.  NUMBER TWO, I CAN'T IMAGINE WITH THE CURRENT
STATE-OF-THE-ART, INTERPRETING SIGN, REVERSE INTERPRET THAT.
I CAN'T IMAGINE THAT BEING DONE WITH TECHNOLOGY AND DON'T
EXPECT TO SEE IT ANY TIME SOON.  DR. STUCKLESS MAY BE ABLE
TO SAY "YES, IT'S HERE, FRANK; YOU ARE AN IGNORAMUS," BUT I
DON'T EXPECT ANYTHING LIKE THAT SOON.  WE ARE SOLVING
LARRY'S PROBLEM BY MAKING THINGS AUDIBLE.  BUT WE ARE
IGNORING PEOPLE WHO ARE BOTH DEAF AND BLIND.  THAT IS A BIG
PROBLEM BECAUSE WE NEED SOLUTIONS FOR THOSE WHO ARE BOTH
DEAF AND BLIND.  I WANT TO MENTION ONE THING HERE...    THE
IMPLICATIONS FOR PEOPLE WHO ARE DEAF, AND IN PARTICULAR I
WANT TO EMPHASIZE IT -- I WANT TO EMPHASIZE IT WITH
EVERYTHING I HAVE -- THE TECHNOLOGY TODAY, TOMORROW, 30 OR
40 YEARS INTO THE FUTURE IS GOING TO RELY ON THE ABILITY OF
A DEAF PERSON TO READ, READ VERY WELL, READ VERY FAST.  I
DON'T KNOW HOW APPRECIATIVE MOST OF YOU ARE ABOUT THIS, BUT
THE CAPTIONS APPEAR ON THE SCREEN VERY FAST, FOR A VERY
SHORT PERIOD OF TIME.  THE SAME THING IS TRUE OF ANY
INFORMATION OVER THE COMPUTER.  IF YOU'RE GOING TO TEACH A
DEAF CHILD ANYTHING, TEACH THEM TO READ.  IT'S GOING TO BE
THE NUMBER ONE THING THAT WILL MAKE THEIR LIVES EASIER AND
MAKE IT POSSIBLE TO EARN A LIVING.  I WANT TO CLOSE BY
TALKING A LITTLE BIT ABOUT THE TV ACT THAT MOST OF YOU KNOW
ABOUT.  THE TELEVISION DECODER CIRCUITRY ACT, THERE'S A
STORY BEHIND THAT THAT IS NOT VERY WELL KNOWN.  ROSS
MENTIONED MY COMMISSION, AND MY COMMISSION RECOMMENDED THAT
WE PUT A COMPUTER CHIP INTO ALL NEW TV SETS, AND AT THE
TIME, NOBODY WAS MAKING THESE COMPUTER CHIPS.  NOBODY WAS
EVEN PLANNING TO MAKE THEM.  BUT SOME PEOPLE HAD THOUGHT
ABOUT IT, AND THEY THOUGHT THAT SOME DAY IN THE FUTURE IT
WOULD BE POSSIBLE TO MAKE A COMPUTER CHIP THAT WOULD BE PUT
INTO A TV SET, THAT WOULD RECEIVE THE CAPTIONS AND DISPLAY
THEM.  MY COMMISSION SAID "LET'S GO WITH THAT.  LET'S DO
IT."  SENATOR TOM HARKIN SAID HE WOULD INTRODUCE LEGISLATION
TO REQUIRE THIS IF THE TV COMPANIES DID NOT COMPLAIN.  HE
SAID "FRANK, AS LONG AS THERE'S NO FIGHT, WE'LL DO IT."  SO
I WENT TO JAPAN; I WENT TO KOREA; I WENT TO OTHER TV
MANUFACTURERS.  IN JAPAN, THEY TOLD ME SOMETHING VERY
INTERESTING THAT, IN EFFECT, THEY DON'T GIVE A DAMN ABOUT
THE DEAF.  BUT THE WHOLE CONCEPT OF CAPTIONING IS GOING TO
BE VERY IMPORTANT FOR OUR BUSINESS EXECUTIVES.  THEY ALL
WANT TO LEARN ENGLISH, AND IT'S AN EASY WAY TO WORK WITH
THEM TO LEARN ENGLISH.  THE PEOPLE IN KOREA THAT I TALKED TO
BASICALLY SAID SOMETHING SIMILAR.    "THE DEAF, WE DON'T
KNOW THE DEAF, DON'T UNDERSTAND THE DEAF, BUT...    LITERACY
IS A BIG PROBLEM ALL OVER THE WORLD.  MILLIONS OF PEOPLE ARE
ILLITERATE AND CAPTIONING TECHNOLOGY HELPS PEOPLE TO BECOME
LITERATE.  THEREFORE, YES, FRANK, WE WON'T FIGHT YOU."  I
CAME BACK AND TOLD TOM HARKIN, EVERYBODY IS ON BOARD, "LET'S
GO."  THERE WERE BATTLES LATER ON, BUT NOT MANY.  LAST WEEK
I WAS IN THE SENATE AGAIN AND I JUST WALKED INTO THE OFFICES
AND LET ME TELL YOU WHAT'S HAPPENING -- ALL THE SENATE
OFFICES, ALL THE HOUSE OFFICES, THEY ALL HAVE THE TV SET ON;
HAVE THE MUTE ON; THEY ALL HAVE THE CAPTIONS ON.  THIS WAY
THEY CAN BE ON THE PHONE, CAN BE IN A MEETING, CAN STILL SEE
THE MEMBER SPEAKING IN THE -- ON C-SPAN.  WE NEVER IMAGINED
THAT THE BIGGEST CUSTOMER FOR CAPTIONING WOULD BE STAFF
MEMBERS ON CAPITOL HILL!  (LAUGHTER)   IT'S MY BASIC POINT
THAT THE TECHNOLOGY THAT WE DEVELOP FOR PEOPLE WHO HAVE
PERSONAL NEEDS TURN OUT TO HAVE USES FOR PEOPLE WHO DON'T
HAVE THOSE NEEDS.  BUT THAT MEANS TECHNOLOGY MOVES FASTER,
THE COST COMES DOWN AND WE ALL BENEFIT.  I'LL BE HAPPY TO
TAKE ANY QUESTIONS YOU MAY HAVE; GO TO THE MICROPHONES -- WE
DON'T HAVE A WHOLE LOT OF TIME.  ALL RIGHT.  ONE QUESTION.
WHO IS GOING TO BE EITHER THE LUCKY PERSON OR THE VICTIM?
ALL RIGHT, COME TO THE MIKE.  CAN SOMEONE BRING THE MIKE
DOWN A FIT?  -- DOWN A BIT?
           >> FRANK, I HAVE ONE OBSERVATION AND ONE
QUESTION.  THE OBSERVATION IS THIS: I WORK WITH THE
ARCHITECTURAL TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AND
ONE ISSUE WAS TO HAVE TDD'S ON PUBLIC PHONES AND WE FINALLY
GOT IT SO THAT THE AIRPORTS HAVE THE TDD'S, BUT THE OTHER
ISSUE WAS TO HAVE THE AC OUTLET CLOSE-BY TO THE TELEPHONE
AND THAT WAS A BIG, RESISTANT ISSUE AT THE TIME.  GUESS WHO
IS USING THAT OUTLET NOW?  MAINLY THE BUSINESSES.
           >> DR. BOWE: YOU DO.
           >> YES, AND THE BUSINESS PEOPLE, THEY ARE USING
IT TO HOOK UP THEIR MODEMS.  WITH VOICE RECOGNITION BECOMING
MORE AND MORE POPULAR, THE ISSUE IS CAN VOICE RECOGNITION
ITSELF TRULY BE A SOLUTION TO THE TRANSCRIPTION ISSUE.  IS
THE PHONE LINES CAPABLE OF HANDLING VOICE RECOGNITION TODAY
OR DOES IT HAVE TO DO WITH A FIBER OPTIC KIND OF QUESTION?
          >> DR. BOWE: IT'S NOT A QUESTION OF FIBER OPTICS.
VOICE RECOGNITION IS A MATTER OF HAVING THE SOPHISTICATION
TO HANDLE DIFFERENT ACCENTS, DIFFERENT WORDS, DIFFERENT
COMBINATIONS OF WORDS.  FIBER OPTICS IS A BETTER, FASTER WAY
OF CARRYING THE MESSAGE BUT IS NOT REALLY THE ISSUE.
M.C.I.--RATHER SPRINT LETS YOU SAY THE PERSON'S NAME.  THAT
UNDERSTANDS YOU.  IF I WOULD HAVE SAID THE SAME NAME, THE
COMPUTER WOULD NOT UNDERSTAND ME.  THE LIMITATIONS IN THE
SOFTWARE RIGHT NOW ARE THE PROBLEMS.  I WANT TO THANK ALL OF
YOU FOR BEING SO PATIENT WITH MY SCANDINAVIAN ACCENT, AND
HAVE A GOOD DAY.  (APPLAUSE)
           >> ROSS STUCKLESS: AREN'T WE FORTUNATE TO HAVE
FRANK BOUGH AS A MAJOR OMBUDSMAN ON OUR BEHALF?  THANK YOU,
FRANK.  (APPLAUSE)   WE ARE ADJOURNED THEN AND OUR FORMAL
PRESENTATIONS BEGIN IN JUST FIVE MINUTES.
 
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