Cornucopia of Disability Information


CODI Directory

CODI Archives

Contact Webmaster

######          #     #         #######         #     #          #####
#     #         ##    #         #               #  #  #         #     #
#     #         # #   #         #               #  #  #         #
######   #####  #  #  #         #####           #  #  #          #####
#               #   # #         #               #  #  #               #
#               #    ##         #               #  #  #         #     #
#               #     #         #######          ## ##           #####


/* Written by in igc:gen.diffable */
/* ---------- "LIFE, DEATH AND RIGHTS, No. 1 - Aug" ---------- */
        Disabled Peoples' International European Union Committee's
        International Disability News Service

        No. 3/95 - January 12, 1995

No. 1, August 1994

An occasional news sheet on eugenics and euthanasia, produced by
Disability Awareness in Action
11 Belgrave Road
London SW1V IRB
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 71 834 0477  Fax: +44 71 821 93'539
Minicom: +44 71 821 9812

Please send copies of any articles you see on these issuses, or a personal
opinion piece (2-200 words at most).

AUSTRALIA: if granted, a legal right could become a social duty
"Euthanasia for economic reasons is perhaps the most important challenge
the medical profession will have to face before the end of the century.
Not in the near future, but now." Dr. Andrew Wynen, Secretary of the World
Medical Association, quoted in The Age
(Melbourne), 28 February 1994.

A doctor in the Netherlands has suggested that old people who opt for
euthanasia should be awarded honours as national heroes because they save
the state money.

UNITED KINGDOM: organ harvest or daylight robbery?
"According to our view, it seems natural to say that organs of living
persons are vital health care resources, which, like other vital
resources, should be subject to a fair distribution. Thus we may be
committed to hold that elderly persons should be killed in order to
redistribute their organs to younger critically i11 persons who would soon
die without the organs. After all, the elderly persons are utilising vital
resources at the expense of tke needy younger people. Neither fairness nor
considerations of utiiity seer to speakagainst it. "Klemens Kappel and
Peter Sandoe,' Saving the Young Before the Old - A Reply to John Harris,
in Bioethics, vol. 8, No. 1,1994, p.91.

WORLDWIDE: protect older people
"Compulsory euthanasia for the demented elderly, as advocated by some in
Great Britain and discussed very broadly by the Royal Society of Medicine,
is presently practised on a small scale in Holland. This practice is
limiting the life span of people by denying medical help to those above a
certain age, just as proposed in the United States by a well-known
governor and a few other people. Any measures to eliminate large numbers
of citizens from society - voters, life-long taxpayers, living people -
are incompatible with our present system of government. This does not mean
that these programmes will not be put into effect. Indeed, some already
are. But it does mean that the implementation of euthanasia programmes
will involve an essential change in the system of goveznment now
prevailing in western nations. Democracy will not protect us against this
danger. Democracy will disappear. There is no democracy where everybody
has the right to vote but not everybody has the right to live." Dr.
Richard Fenigsen, retired Dutch cardiologist, quoted in Population
Research Institute Review, March/April 1994.

The International Anti-Euthanasia Task Force (IAETF) is a human rights
group that maintains communication with, and serves as a consultant for,
inUeividuais and organisations around the world. Networkers represent a
broad spectrum of interests, including
disability rights, advocacy, education, religion, law, medicine and
The IAETF was formed in 1987 to meet the urgent need for individuals and
organisations who oppose euthanasia to work together. It is this common
ground which unites networkers who may hold widely differing views on
other aspects of social policy and medical ethics. The aims of the IAETF
are to:
  - provide complete, accurate and well-documented information on
euthanasia, suicide, assisted suicide and related issues
  - draw public attention to the subtle and not so subtle pressure placed
on individuals who are chronically ill, terminally ill, dependent or
disabled to "get out of the way"
  - promote and defend the right of all to be treated with respect,
dignity and compassion
  - resist attitudes, programmes and policies that threaten the lives and
rights of those who are medically vulnerable.

IAETF, PO Box 760, Steubenville, Ohio 43952, USA.

Thanks to ALERT: Information on Euthanasia, 27 Walpole Street,
London SW3 4Q5, United Kingdom, for the information on this page.

Screen Tests
A screening test used to detect whether mothers have conditions such as
Down's syndrome and cystic fibrosis can cause missing limbs in babies.
Fears over the safety of chorionic villus sampling (CVS), which involves
taking cells from the placenta at an early stage of pregnancy, were first
raised in 1991.  Dr. Helen Firth of the Oxford Regional Genetic Service
identified a cluster of babies born with missing limbs to 289 women given
the test. According to a report in The Lancet (a British magazine for
doctors), Dr. Firth has analysed all reports of limb defects after CVS,
published up to December 1992, and found 79 cases.
Thanks to Disability Now, United Kingdom for this information.

Selective Abortion
At the end of May, a British woman had an abortion six months into her
pregnancy after a hospital scan indicated that her foetus had brain
damage. The abortion was carried out by Caesarean section; the baby
survived for 45 minutes. The mother was then told that the foetus did not
appear to have any impairments. In Britain, most legal abortions must be
carried out by the 24th week of pregnancy. However, abortion on the
grounds of impairment is legal up to the moment of birth. Most disabled
people would not blame individual women seeking selective abortions, many
of whom are struggling with isolation, stigma and poverty as we are.
Sadly, another important element is ignorance - or disabled people, of
who we are and what we could do, if the world had not historically been
organised to exclude, segregate, silence and disable us.  Many people grow
up without getting to know anyone with severe impairments at school, at
work, in leisure time. In the public imagination, we are reduced to one
characteristic, our impairment, as though other factors (whether we can
get a job, get on a bus, enter a polling station, access information) had
no effect on our "quality of life". Based on this view - that disabled
people's lives are inevitably full of misery, and a cause of misery to
others - the "merciful" thing is to "prevent" us. Yet the experience of
impairment, temporary or permanent, will form part of every life. Denying
this, many doctors, many people, believe that absolutely anything is
acceptable to avoid the birth or life of a disabled child.  If the British
woman's baby had had some brain damage, every one of the 45 minutes it
took, which no medical intervention was made, would have seemedjustified
and there would have been no news story. None of the media who covered the
case made this point; it was merely the 'mistake' - a "normal" baby
allowed to die - that was seen as "tragic".

We, the delegates of the l4th World Congress of Social Psychiatry held in
Hamburg, Germany from 5 to 10 June 1994, wish to express our deep concern
about the Bioethics Convention drafted by the Council of Europe.

The Bioethics Convention is designed to govern the application of
biomedical methode of research and therapy. This concerns, inter alia,
genetic screening, research into the human genome; methods of genetic
therapy and embryo research.
Article 6 of the Bioethics Convention provides for national governments to
authorise "non-beneficial interventions on incapacitated persons" for
research purposes without personal consent of the individual concerned,
provided that there is an "overriding interest" and further provided that
"the risk and burden for the individual is minimal".
This provision will make available to biomedical research any person who
is impaired by reason of mental illness, mental disability, physical
illness or disability, advanced age, chronic use of drugs or chronic
intoxication, to the extent that he lacks or is declared to lack the
capacity to make or communicate decisions concerning his person. Thus,
incapacitated persons are in danger of becoming the first victims of the
unreined ethos of progress of biomedicine and the economic interests

We, the delegates of the l4th World Congress of Social Psychiatry, demand
that no provisions be enacted which, on the grounds of medical or social
interests, override the human right of the individual or of groups of
individuals to human integrity and dignity.

We, the delegates of the l4th World Congress of Social Psychiatry wish to
express our emphatic and urgent warning against the dangers and the
Babylonian megalomania in biomedicine: not all that could be done, should
be done.

E lektronischer                                      Werner-Hilpert-Str. 8
D okumentations- und                                 D - 34117 K a s s e l
I nformations-                                       Tel.: 0561 / 71 33 87
D ienst                                              Fax: 0561 /  71 31 32
                       EDID ist ein Projekt
  der Interessenvertretung 'Selbstbestimmt Leben' Deutschland - ISL e.V.
********************** *****************************


/* Written by in igc:gen.diffable */
/* ---------- "LIFE, DEATH AND RIGHTS, No. 2, Nove" ---------- */
        Disabled Peoples' International European Union Committee's
        International Disability News Service

        No. 4/95 - January 12, 1995

No. 2, November 1994 PART I

An occasional news sheet on eugenics and euthanasia, produced by
Disability Awareness in Action
11 Belgrave Road
London SW1V IRB
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 71 834 0477  Fax: +44 71 821 93'539
Minicom: +44 71 821 9812

Please send copies of any articles you see on these issuses, or a personal
opinion piece (2-200 words at most).

UNITED KINGDOM: Attempted Murder
A man who tried to kill his five-day old son walked free from the Old
Bailey (the central criminal court in England) at the end of July. The
man's son has Down's syndrome. The 30-year old father of two was crying as
the judge told him: "It would not be in your son's interest to send you to
prison. What you did was in a moment of madness." The father told police:

"I loved our baby like I loved our other boy but I thought he wouldn't
have a life." He had walked into the maternity ward where his wife and son
were staying and tried to smother his son with a pillow. When that failed,
he held a plastic bag across the child's face, then told a midwife: "I
have suffocated him." The man's defence lawyer claimed doctors had broken
the news of the infant's Down's syndrome badly: the parents had not been
together and the child was not with them when each was told. The father
received a 15-month prison sentence suspended for two years. The man seems
to have been treated with great sympathy by all involved; thejudge told
him that he confidently expected him to continue to be an extremely
responsible parent. It is clear that the father was in considerable
distress about the diagnosis when he tried to kill his son and has
experienced considerable remorse since. One of the things this case
highlight is how diagnosis of impairnnent is delivered to people and to
relatives. It must be possible to do this in a way that doesn't leave the
impression of unremitting tragedy. Great care needs to be taken, as most
cultures still present disabled people as sick, tragic victims and many
non-disabled people have had little contact with disabled people
fulfilling a variety of roles in their communities. Doctors and other
medical professionals may not be the best people to do this. If the man's
son had not had Down's syndrome, it is unlikely that the police and
criminal justice system would have responded so positively. Most people
would probably have some sympathy for the father's distress, and quite a
number might feel that they would have responded similarly; that indeed
his was a courageous act. As disabled people, we do need to increase our
involvement in pre-birth and after-birth counselling of parents of
disabled children, as well as support for people who become disabled later
in life. By doing this, we can provide positive role models, educate
parents and show the whole community that our lives are worthwhile.

"Maartje, a four-day-old Dutch baby who died after a fatal injection from
her doctor, is set to make legal history in the Netherlands by
establishing the boundaries of its liberal euthanasia laws," reported The
Guardian newspaper in the UK on 5 July 1994. A gynaecologist has been
prosecuted for injecting a baby who had spina bifida with a drug to
paralyse breathing on 25 March 1993. A Dutch newspaper stated: "The
prosecution must among other things answer the question, whether a doctor
is allowed to end the life of a patient who has not asked for it himself."
The doctor first consulted two paediatricians, two gynaecologists and a
neurologist, all of whom advised death for the baby. A British
paediatrician's opinion: "It is a feature of spinal lesions that they are
associated with anaesthesia. These children tend to have no sensation in
the lower limbs and pain control is not usually a problem. Those children
considered too seriously affected to benefit from radical surgical
intervention at birth, still require palliative care including surgical
intervention to prevent distressing deformity. Such infants may enjoy many
years of fruitful and often rewarding life before other complications
intervene. Many parents have reasons to be thankful for a child's short
but satisfying life."

"A glance at the news suggests most people are more worried about getting
any treatment in the new commercial NHS, rather than having too much. Yet
the scare-mongering myth of reluctant patients having the dying process
prolonged by aggressive over-treatment remains. . . "'Euthanasia: why it
is still unacceptable', by Ann Sommerville, the Britisjh Medical
Association New Review, May 1994. Thanks to ALERT (United Kingdom) for the
above two items.

A New Jersey father of three is seeking court permission to commit
suicide, which, he says, is the only wav he can support his children and
his ex-wife. As Andrew Kozak, 47, sees it, getting the court to approve
his "right to die" would allow his children to collect his life insurance.

Kozak went so far as to submit to the court his will, funeral instructions
and letters addressed to his children. But Family Court Judge Robert page
ruled that he did not have the authority to sanction Kozak's suicide.
Instead he ordered Kozak committed for psychiatric evaluation. Kozak, who
has maintained all along that he is not'suicidal', was released several
hours after being admitted because doctors at the hospital found that he
did not pose a danger and tht he did not need treatment. Under the court
order, however, Kozak must still undergo more psychiatric evaluation
before he will be allowed to have unsupervised visits with his children.

Will Kozak take his own life without court approval? "I can't," he said,
"I've got legal things to work out." IAETF Update, Vol. 8, No. 5, Sept/Oct

The British Medical Association is drafting a Code of Practice for doctors
in connection with advance directives. The Law Commission is also expected
to report soon on decision-making for incompetent patients. Dr. Peggy
Norris, Honorary Secretary of the British Section of the World Federation
of Doctors who Respect Human Life and Chairman of ALERT, said: "Will the
Committee that is now looking at advance directives insist that since we
already have legalised euthansia-by-omission - passive euthanasia -
doctors who refuse to starve and dehydrate their helpless patients to
death will be obliged to refer them to a compliant death peddler, as is
demanded in Holland? there, a GP refused to arrange the death of a woman
suffering from depression. the Dutch voluntary euthansia society supplied
a Dr. Chabot, who prescribed a lethal concoction. GPs who opt out of the
euthanasia process have now been reprimanded by the Dutch government."

China's law to "upgrade the quality of newborn babies"
On 27 October, China's legislature passed a law that will prevent those
deemed to have serious intellectual impairments, mental health
difficulties or contagious diseases from marrving or having children. The
official Xinhua news agency in Beijing stated that Chinahad more than 10
million disabled people "whose births could have been prevented if such a
law had been in effect when their parents were marrying or having
children". The Maternal and Infant Health Care Law, ratified by the
Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, is a diluted version
of the more accurately-titled Draft Law on Eugenics and Health proposed a
year ago (see DAA Newsletter Thirteen, January 1993), which prompted an
intemational outcry and comparisons with Nazi eugenic ambitions. When it
was first introduced at the end of 1993, the goverriment bluntly said that
the law was to stop "inferior" births. In October, Xinhua adopted language
more friendly to the international media by casting its new policy in a
supposedly positive if euphemistic light: the law will "help reduce births
of physically or mentally abnormal babies". Despite the 1990 Law for the
Protection of Disabled Persons and media awareness-raising campaigns,
there is still much ignorance about and prejudice against disabled people
in China. Under the new Iaw, effective from June 1995, "those suffering
from mental and contagious diseases will have to defer their marriages
when the diseases are serious and likely to affect others". Foetuses
carrying hereditary diseases will be aborted and women whose "health is
threatened" will be advised to abort. Although, "the mother, or her
guardian at the time she lost consciousness, has the final say on whether
to abort the baby" in this last case, it is likely that disabled women
will be encouraged to feel that the fact of being pregnant is itself a
"threat" to their health, whether or not this is the case. The law does
contain some positive or potentially positive clauses. Sex identification
before birth will be outlawed except for "medical purposes". Official
edicts have previously banned the use of ultrasound scans for sex
identification purposes but to little effect. In rural areas, where most
families can, in practice, have two children, rather than the official one
child per couple, the preference for boys is still strong. State hospitals
earn much-needed cash by offering such a service, followed by abortions of
female foetuses. The results of this practice can be dramatic. An official
newspaper, China Information, said in October that in the city of Zhangye,
in north-west Gansu province, the ratio of newborns was 131 boys to 100
girls, compared with the normal ration of 106:100. This artificial sex
imbalance is mirrored in other parts of the world. The attempt to
eradicate this most deadly form of sex discrimination follows legislation
in other countries and is to be welcomed, though the exemption of
screening for "medical purposes" could have wide usage. Also to be
welcomed is the provision that from next year, the government must provide
pre-marital and prenatal health care. There is little detail available on
what this actually means but we must hope that it is to be used for more
than social, sexual and fertility control by the state.

E lektronischer                                      Werner-Hilpert-Str. 8
D okumentations- und                                 D - 34117 K a s s e l
I nformations-                                       Tel.: 0561 / 71 33 87
D ienst                                              Fax: 0561 /  71 31 32
                       EDID ist ein Projekt
  der Interessenvertretung 'Selbstbestimmt Leben' Deutschland - ISL e.V.
********************** *****************************


/* Written by in igc:gen.diffable */
/* ---------- "LIFE, DEATH AND RIGHTS, No. 2, Nove" ---------- */
        Disabled Peoples' International European Union Committee's
        International Disability News Service

        No. 5/95 - January 12, 1995

No. 2, November 1994 PART II

An occasional news sheet on eugenics and euthanasia, produced by
Disability Awareness in Action
11 Belgrave Road
London SW1V IRB
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 71 834 0477  Fax: +44 71 821 93'539
Minicom: +44 71 821 9812

Please send copies of any articles you see on these issuses, or a personal
opinion piece (2-200 words at most).

Better Dead than Disabled? Two Food and Fluids Cases
Michigan, USA: Michael Martin, 41, was severely disabled by a car-train
accident in 1987. He is not in a persistent vegetative state and has
communicated that he wants to continue living through a computerised
device. Yet, despite his current expressed wishes, his wife and legal
guardian has petitioned the courts to have his food and fluids withheld.

Michael's sister and mother have been fighting for his right to live. The
Michigan Court of Appeals remanded the case back to the Probate Court,
which had previously ruled against the removal of food and fluid, but also
offered the opinion that Michael's expressed wish to live was irrelevant
because of his "impaired condition". Following the Court of Appeals remand
order, the Probate Court Judge changed his original ruling and agreed to
allow Mrs. Martin to order the removal of her husband's feeding tube.
Michael. who is alert, plays card games, watches TV, loves country and
western music and appears content in his current nursing home, recently
spelled out "AFRAID" on his alphabet board.
Alabama. USA: In what has been described as Alabama's first right-to-die
case, relatives of 75-year old Correan Salter have petitioned the court to
remove her feeding tube. Salter had a stroke 7 years ago. She is
reportedly semi-conscious, has some brain function, can follow people with
her eyes and can feel pain. A court ordered evaluation indicated that she
would neverrecover. In August, the County Circuit Court heard testimony
from Salter's three sisters, two half brothers and some friends in support
of starving and dehydrating her to death. One long-term neighbour said: "I
wouldn't want to be kept alive and I don't know that she would either."
Thanks to the Intemational Anti-Euthanasia Task Force for details of these
two cases.

UNITED STATES: Land of the Free, Home of the Brave?
"A man with multiple disabilities died in California after being beaten
and stuffed into a dumpster. Authorities called it a 'cruel prank'. A
wheelchair user in Colorado became comatose due to smoke inhalation after
someone repeatedly torched the wooden ramp leading to his apartment door.
A blind woman was attacked in a plaza in Washington DC by a man who threw
her cane on the ground and told her she belonged in a concentration camp.

In Illinois, a developmentally disabled man became the target of a
conspiracy of harassment at work. His co-workers, mostly college students,
took turns elaborating for him how they intended to murder him by sneaking
into his home at night. He left his job in terror and has not been able to
return to any job. . . We remain invisible, perhaps, because many wish we
would disappear."

Executed prisoners are regularly used as a source of organs for
transplants in China, according to a report by Human Rights Watch/Asia. In
a few places, some executions are deliberately done badly so that the
prisoner is not dead when the organs are removed. In some cases, kidneys
have been removed from prisoners the night before their execution. The
report claims about 3,000 organs, mostly kidneys and comeas are used each
year. In China, traditional belief has it that the dead should be buried
intact and by law, the authorities need permission from prisoners or their
families before organs are removed. The report says that consent is rarely
sought and prisoners are coerced in their final hours. Most executions in
China are carried out by shooting in the head but a security official said
that a prisoner would be shot in the heart if their eyes were needed. A
Chinese government directive states: "The use of corpses or organs of
convicted criminals must be kept strictly secret and attention must be
paid to avoiding negative repercussions."
Human Rights Watch/Asia cited government documents, articles in medical
journals and statements by doctors to back its claims.

Dutch doctors may now perform euthanasia on patients who are not ill,
following a historic legal judgement. Dr. Boudewijn Chabot was let off
without punishment by the court after it was determined that he had
assisted the suicide of a healthy woman who wanted to die after the death
of her two sons.
Source: The European,15-21 July 1994.

When the Supreme Court of India recently struck down a 161-year old law
which made suicide a crime, Minoo Masani. a past president of the
International Federation of Right to Die Societies and former head of
Bombav's Society for the Right to Die with Dignity, seized the moment to
call for the legalisation of euthanasia. Masani reportedly said, "India is
overpopulated anyway; if a few people want to die, why not let them go".
The Morning Sun (Dhaka), quoted in IAETF Update, September-October 1994.


". . . Chapter II. Premarital health care Article 7
Medical and health care organs should offer premarital health care
services to citizens. Premarital health care services include:
  l. premarital hygienic guidance: education in knowledge concerning sex
hygiene, reproduction and hereditary diseases;
  2. premarital hygienic consultation, offering medical opinions on
marrying, health care for child bearing and other problems;
  3. premarital medical checkups, conducting medical checkups on men and
women preparing for marriage to discover diseases likely to affect their
marriage and reproduction.

Article 8
A premarital medical checkup should include examinations for the following

  l. serious hereditary diseases;
  2. legal contagious diseases
  3. relevant mental disorders.
After the premarital medical checkup, the medical and health care organ
should issue a certificate on the premarital medical checkup.

Article 9
When either one of the couple preparing for marriage is found to be in the
infective stage of a legal contagious disease or at the pathogenic stage
of a relevant mental disorder during the premarital medical checkup, the
doctor should offer medical opinions and the couple should postpone their

Article 10
When either one of the couple is diagnosed to have a serious hereditary
disease, which is medically deemed unsuitable for reproduction, the doctor
should explain the situation and offer medical opinions to the couple.
The couple may marry if they agree to take longlasting contraceptive
measures or give up child-bearing by undergoing ligation [sterilisation];
this does not apply to those whose marriage is prohibited by articles in
the 'Marriage Law of the People's Republic of China'.

... Article 12
When a couple register their marriage, they should have the certificates
ofpremarital medical checkups or medical technical certification with
them. . .

Chapter III. Health care during pregnancy and childbirth
... Article 15
Medical and health care organs should provide medical guidance for
pregnant women having contracted serious diseases or having taken
deformity-causing substances, whose pregnancy may endanger the life of
pregnant women themselves or seriouslv affect the health and norrmal
growth of foetuses.

Article 16
When a doctor discovers or suspects pregnant women of foetal abnormality
during prenatal examinations. he or she should conduct prenatal diagnostic
tests on the pregnant women.

Article 18
When one ofthe following circumstances is discovered during prenatal
diagnostic tests, the doctor should explain the circumstance to both
husband and wife and give a medical opinion on terminating the
  l. foetuses have contracted serious hereditary' diseases;
  2. foetuses have serious deformity; and
  3. due to serious illness, continuation of preg- nancy may endanger the
life of pregnant women or seriously harm their health.

Article 19
When termination of a pregnancy or ligation is performed on pregnant
women, it is necessary to obtain their signature of consent, or the
signature of consent from guardians in the case that pregnant women are
legally incompetent.

Article 20
Before a woman who has given birth to seriously defective infants
conceives again, both husband and wife should undergo medical examinations
at a medical and health care organ at or above county level. . .

Article 38
Definitions of terms used in this law:
"Legal contagious diseases refers to AIDS, gonorrhoea, syphilis, leprosy
and other contagious diseases medically deemed as having impacts on
marriage and reproduction, which are stipulated in the 'Law of the
People's Republic of China on Prevention of Conta-
gious Diseases'.
"Serious hereditary diseases" refers to congenital diseases caused by
hereditary factors, which are medically deemed as not suitable for child-
bearing because such diseases make patients lose total or partial abilin'
to live independently and have a high potential to be passed to the next
  "Relevant mental disorders" refers to schizophrenia, manic-depressive
psychosis and other major psychoses.
  "Prenatal diagnostic tests" refers to diagnostic tests on foetuses which
are aimed at discovering congenital defects and hereditary diseases.

E lektronischer                                      Werner-Hilpert-Str. 8
D okumentations- und                                 D - 34117 K a s s e l
I nformations-                                       Tel.: 0561 / 71 33 87
D ienst                                              Fax: 0561 /  71 31 32
                       EDID ist ein Projekt
  der Interessenvertretung 'Selbstbestimmt Leben' Deutschland - ISL e.V.
********************** *****************************

There are 4 -*PNEWS CONFERENCES** ALL are gated together***
    On FidoNet, ask your sysop to also carry P_news.
  Subscribe to PeaceNet or an APC Network. For information
send e-mail to: <PEACENET-INFO@IGC.APC.ORG>.
     [There are 2 PNEWS CONFERENCES on PeaceNet].
PNEWS CONFERENCES are carried on APC Networks world-wide.
PNEWS CONFERENCES are moderated. If you wish to subscribe to a PNEWS
 list on InterNet send request to: <>.

MOST POPULAR DOCUMENTS:   ADA Accessibility Guidelines | Disabled Students in Higher Education | Caregiver Stress: Causes & Treatment | History of Disabilities and Social Problems | Disability Statistics | Using Knowledge and Technology
This site is maintained by Jennifer Weir, Disability Services at Texas A&M University -- Corpus Christi