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Access Pass


   An Access Pass permits a resident of New York State with a permanent
   disability free use of parks, historic sites and recreational facilities
   operated by the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic
   Preservation and the Department of Environmental Conservation. The
   passholder may have free use of facilities operated by these offices for
   which there is normally a charge (for example; parking, camping, greens
   fees and swimming). To qualify for an Access Pass, an applicant must be
   a resident of New York State and must provide proof of disability in the
   form of certification from the appropriate agency, or by verification of
   disability by a physician.


For complete information on the criteria for eligibility and an
application, contact:


		Access Pass
		Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation
		Empire State Plaza
		Agency Building 1
		Albany, New York 12238
		(518) 474-3714


Accessible Transportation


   A specially designed transportation for any individual who by reason of
   illness, age, injury or congenital malfunction or other permanent or
   temporary incapacity or disability, is unable, without special
   facilities, special planning or design, to utilize mass transportation
   facilities as effectively as members of the general public. 


   (1) Accessible Para-Transit: A transportation service specifically
   designed to serve the needs of persons with disabilities using special
   vehicles and operating on a door-to-door basis. 

   (2) Accessible Fixed Route Service: A regularly scheduled fixed route
   bus system fully equipped and designed to be useful for people with
   disabilities. This system can also be available on a direct call basis. 

   (3) New York City Accessible Transit Committee: A committee
   established under Section 15-b of New York State
   Transportation Law. The purpose of the Committee is to assist
   in the development of a coordinated accessible transportation
   system within the City of New York. The Committee consists of
   an advisor to the Office of the Mayor of the City of New
   York, Director of the Mayor' s Office of the Handicapped,
   Commissioner of the City' s Department for the Aging,
   Commissioner of the State Department of Transportation, State
   Advocate for the Disabled, Director of the State Office for
   the Aging and four people with disabilities who reside or
   work within the City of New York appointed by the Governor,
   two of which must be recommended by the Mayor of the City of
   New York and another who resides and works in the City of New
   York who has experience with transportation services for
   people with disabilities. 


For more information, please contact :


		New York State Department of Transportation
		Transit Division
		Governor Harriman State Campus
		Building 4, Room 115
		Albany, New York 12232
		(518) 457-7664
		
		Mayor's Office for the Handicapped
		52 Chambers Street
		Room 206
		New York, New York 10007
		(212) 566-5700
		
		New York State Department of Transportation
		Region II
		47-40 21st Street
		Long Island City, New York 11101
		(212) 482-4594

Access Travel


For information on this subject you may wish to obtain the following:


Access Travel: Guide to Accessibility of Airport Terminals.

 Can be obtained from:
		Architectural and Transportation Barriers and
		Compliance Board
		11111 8th Street, N. W.
		Washington, D.C. 20201
		(202) 653-7834

Travel Like Everybody Else: A Practical Guide for Disabled Travelers by
Jacqueline Freedman and Susan Gersten.

 Can be obtained from:
		Adama Books
		306 West 38th Street
		New York, New York 10018
		(212) 594-5770


Accessibility


   A term which refers to freedom for people with disabilities to equally
   participate in activities of daily life including employment,
   transportation, housing, recreation and education without being limited
   or denied due to architectural and/or attitudinal barriers.


For more information write to:


		Office of Civil Rights
		U. S. Department of Education
		Region II, Federal Building
		26 Federal Plaza
		New York, New York 10278
		(212) 264-4633
		
		Association of Independent Living
		Centers in New York, Inc.
		190 Murray Street
		Rochester, New York 14606
		(716) 254-3650
		(716) 546-6990 (TDD)


Achievement Tests


   Achievement tests are given to determine how much a child has already
   learned in several different subject areas. These subject areas include
   reading, mathematics, language, spelling, social studies and science.
   The information that achievement tests provide can be used to help
   school personnel to develop educational programs and services that meet
   a child' s needs in each school subject. For specific information on the
   types of achievement tests given in individual school districts and
   related data, contact the local school administrations in your area. 


Acute


   A term which refers to a disease or illness which is short and severe,
   not long and drawn out (chronic). 


Adaptive Physical Education


   Adaptive physical education means a specially designed program of
   developmental activities, games, sports and rhythms suited to the
   interests, capacities and limitations of pupils with handicapping
   conditions who may not safely or successfully engage in unrestricted
   participation in the activities of the regular physical education
   program. 


Advocacy Group


   A general term describing a group or agency comprised of persons or
   organizations with similar goals, working together to bring to public
   attention, their views and the proposals they support in order to effect
   positive change. 


Affirmative Action


   A term used to describe the hiring and promoting of qualified
   individuals regardless of disability, race, sex, national origin or
   ancestry, providing the individual can perform at the minimum accepted
   standards. 


Aging-Out


   A term used to describe individuals with disabilities who are no longer
   eligible for mandated educational services because they have attained
   age 21. In order to circumvent an abrupt halt in educational services
   for these persons, the following laws were enacted to provide
   transitional fun-ling and a planning/referral process to enable those
   who were "aging-out" to retain services while appropriate adult
   placements were found for them: Chapter 544 (1982)-- for children with
   handicapping conditions in residential facilities located outside the
   State who will require in-State services after age 21; Chapter 570
   (1983)-- for persons in residential facilities located in New York who
   will require services after age 21; and, Chapter 462 (1984)--for
   youngsters receiving non-residential special educational services for a
   full school day who will need adult services after age 21. 


For further information contact: 


		New York State Office of Advocate for the Disabled
		One Empire State Plaza, 10th floor
		Albany, New York 12223
		(518) 474-2825
		(518) 473-4231  (TTY/ TDD)
		1-800 522-4369 (Voice and TTY/TDD)


AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)


   As explained by information from the AIDS Institute of the New York
   State Department of Health (see term for definition), AIDS (Acquired
   Immune Deficiency Syndrome) causes the body to lose its natural
   defenses against disease. The body then becomes open to attack by a
   whole set of illnesses, ranging from mild infections to life-threatening
   conditions, which usually do not pose a threat to anyone whose immune
   system (see term for definition) is working normally. Some people with
   AIDS develop a rare form of pneumonia (Pneumo-cystis carinii pneumonia)
   caused by an organism that has no ill effect on healthy people. Others
   develop Kaposi's sarcoma, a cancer that affects the skin and lining of
   the blood vessels, and may spread throughout the body. Also, unusual
   bacterial and fungal infections are often found in persons who have
   AIDS. Symptoms may include one or more of the following: unexplained
   tiredness, combined with headache, dizziness or lightheadedness;
   continued fever or night sweats; weight loss of more than 10 pounds
   which is not due to dieting or increased physical activity ; swollen
   glands in the neck, armpits or groin ; heavy, dry cough that is not from
   smoking and has lasted too long to be a cold or flu; thrush (a thick
   whitish coating of the tongue or throat), which may be accompanied by a
   sore throat; shortness of breath; bruising more easily than normal ;
   purple or discolored growths (patches) on the skin, possibly first
   seen on the ankles and legs, or the mucous membranes inside the mouth;
   unexplained bleeding from any body opening or from growths on the skin
   or mucous membranes. 


For more information, contact : 


		AIDS Institute
		New York State Department of Health
		Corning Tower
		Empire State Plaza
		Albany, New York 12237
		1-800 541-AIDS (Statewide information hot line)


AIDS Institute


   The AIDS Institute is part of the New York State Department of Health,
   Office of Public Health. The institute is responsible for encouraging
   and supporting AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome-- see term for
   definition) research and community programs that promote and provide
   patient services and public education. The Institute has also
   established a program to provide assistance with emergency problems
   related to the treatment of people with AIDS, or discrimination against
   members of risk groups. AIDS patients, their families and friends, as
   well as hospital staff, can call (518) 473-0641 or (212) 340-3388 in the
   event a problem exists that cannot be resolved at the local level.
   Problems with patient care , social service concerns including medical
   bills , housing , etc., as well as funeral arrangements, can be handled
   by the office. Additionally, AIDS Institute Newsletter is published
   periodically by the Institute to provide updates on information relating
   to prevention, incidence, treatment, research and services. 

For more information, contact :


		AIDS Institute
		New York State Department of Health
		Corning Tower
		Empire State Plaza
		Albany, New York 12237
		1-800 541-AIDS (Statewide information hot line)


Alzheimer's Disease


   Alzheimer's Disease is a progressive, degenerative disease that can
   cause memory loss, confusion, inability to make decisions, difficulty in
   speech and movement, inability to recognize even family members, loss of
   basic and learned skills and the ability to live independently. A
   characteristic of this disease is the death of neurons (nerve cells
   vital to the functioning of the brain) which significantly decreases
   the ability of the brain to relay messages and recall stored knowledge.


For further information, contact :


		New York State Department of Health
		Empire State Plaza
		Corning Tower
		Albany, NY 12237
		(518) 474-7354
		
		Burke Rehabilitation Center
		Dementia Research Service
		785 Mamaroneck Avenue
		White Plains, New York 10605
		(914) 948-0050 Ext. 2477


Ambulatory Care


   Services for diagnosis and treatment of a variety of medical conditions
   for patients who do not require inpatient care (care in a hospital or
   medical institution). 


American National Standards Institute, Inc. (ANSI)


   In May 1959, ANSI, acting on the request of the President's Committee on
   Employment of the Handicapped (PCEH) (see term for definition), began a
   standards-development project to provide guidance to builders and
   designers to eliminate architectural barriers (see term for definition)
   which can cause problems for persons who are mobility impaired. In
   subsequent years, in conjunction with many groups including PCEH, the
   National Easter Seal Society for Crippled Children and Adults, National
   Center for a Barrier-Free Society, National Association of Home
   Builders, American Coalition of Citizens with Disabilities, and the
   United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, ANSI has
   revised, expanded and improved these standards to provide detailed
   specifications by which accessibility and usability can be achieved in
   the workplace, in residences, and in social gathering places. Commonly
   referred to as "ANSI Standards, " these specifications have been
   recommended for adoption and enforcement by administrative authorities
   in the construction, rehabilitation, and alteration of buildings,
   facilities, and site development, so that those individuals with
   physical impairments may pursue their interests and aspirations, develop
   their talents, and exercise their skills. These detailed specifications
   can be found in American National Standard Specifications for Making
   Buildings and Facilities Accessible to and Usable by Physically
   Handicapped People (ANSI-A117. 1-1980). 


   In 1984 the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) were issued.
   These are now the generally accepted standard for use in compliance with
   the accessible design provision of Section 504. 


For more information, contact : 


		American National Standards Institute, Inc.
		1430 Broadway
		New York, New York 10018
		(212) 354-3300
		
		Office of Civil Rights
		U. S. Department of Education
		Region II, Federal Building
		26 Federal Plaza
		New York, NY 10278
		(212) 264-5189


Amputee


   A term which refers to a person who has amputation, or the complete
   surgical removal of any limb (s) or part of a limb (s) from the body
  . This procedure is undertaken only when there is disease or damage
   beyond treatment or repair. Industrial and/or road accidents are the
   major causes of severe limb damage, but the necessity for amputation may
   occur as the result of such diseases and conditions as cancer, diabetes,
   gangrene (death of part of the tissues of the body usually as a result
   of direct injury or inadequate blood supply), frostbite (freezing of the
   skin and tissue due to exposure from extreme cold) and hardening of the
   arteries. An amputee may experience many post-operative symptoms
   including phantom limb pain (the feeling that the absent limb is still
   there and that it, or part of it, is painful). Among the methods used
   for adaptive/rehabilitative education is the use of a prosthesis-- an
   artificial device (which may be electronic) to substitute for the
   missing part. 


For more information, contact : 


		National Amputation Foundation
		12-45 150th Street
		Whitestone, New York 11357
		(212) 767-0596
		
		The 52 Association
		441 Lexington Avenue
		New York, New York 10017
		(212) 986-5281
		
		National Association of the Physically Handicapped
		76 Elm Street
		London, Ohio 43140
		
		National Rehabilitation Information Center
		4407 Eighth Street, N. W.
		Washington, D. C. 20017
		(202) 635-5884 (Voice and TTY/TDD)


Aphasia

   A medical term which means "loss of language"; it refers to all aspects
   of language loss, not only speech. People with aphasia often have
   difficulty with one or more of the following things: speaking, reading,
   writing, arithmetic, spelling, counting, telling time, understanding
   what is said, and recognizing objects. Two specific examples of aphasia
   are: expressive aphasia-- a condition in which it is difficult or
   impossible to make one's own thoughts or wants known to others; and
   receptive aphasia-- a condition in which it is difficult or impossible
   to understand what others are trying to communicate. 


For more information, contact : 


		NYS Speech-Language-Hearing Association (NYSSLHA) 
		111 Washington Avenue,
		6th Floor 
		Albany, New York 12210 
		(518) 463-5272


Aptitude Tests


   Aptitude tests provide information about a child's ability to learn in
   school. The results of these tests can help school personnel plan a
   child's educational program so that it will not be too difficult or too
   easy for the individual. Aptitude tests do not measure how well a child
   will do in specific school subjects, but they do measure a range of
   skills such as understanding and use of words. For specific information
   on the types of aptitude tests given in individual school districts, and
   related data, contact your local school administration. 


Architectural Barriers


   This term refers to building design which limits usage by persons who
   are mobility-impaired. In order to move toward eliminating architectural
   barriers, New York State enacted Chapter 707 of the Laws of 1981, which
   created the State Fire Prevention and Building Code Council (within the
   Division of Housing and Community Renewal). The Council was charged with
   preparing a new State Uniform Fire Prevention and Building Code to be
   used by all municipalities within the State effective January 1, 1984
   and amended in October, 1987. The Code contains provisions for the
   construction and maintenance of buildings including such structural
   elements as: space and fire safety requirements; plumbing, heating,
   electrical, ventilating and fire protection equipment; and facilities
   for persons who are physically handicapped and hearing impaired.
   Information on the establishment of specifications for accessibility
   including bathrooms, kitchens, and curb ramps can be found under
   "American National Standards Institute, Inc. " 


For more information, contact : 


		Office of Civil Rights, Region II
		U. S. Department of Education
		Federal Building
		26 Federal Plaza
		New York, New York 10278
		(212) 264-5189
		
		Law Bureau
		Division of Housing and Community Renewal
		1 Fordham Plaza
		Bronx, New York 10458
		(212) 519-5749


Arthritis


   Arthritis means inflammation of a joint, and generally refers to over
   100 rheumatic diseases (a group of diseases which affect muscles,
   ligaments, tendons, joints, and other body parts) which have different
   symptoms, patterns and treatments. The most commonly recognized forms of
   diseases included under the umbrella term "arthritis" are: 


   juvenile arthritis-- forms of arthritis which differ from the kinds
   found in adults that may appear any time after birth, may be mild or
   serious, can change from day to day, and may include the symptoms of
   skin rash, fever, inflammation of the eyes, slowed growth, swelling of
   lymph nodes, fatigue, and swelling and pain in the muscles and joints; 


   rheumatoid arthritis-- an auto-immune disease in which the body's immune
   system forms antibodies against itself and can involve chronic
   inflammation of joint membranes and tissues which may cause fatigue,
   weight loss, anemia, and stiffness and malformation of the joints in
   knees, hands and feet ;


   osteoarthritis-- the most common form of arthritis, which involves the
   chronic breakdown of cartilage in the affected joints, such as fingers,
   hips, knees, spine and may result in painful bony growths in the finger
   joints;


   scleroderma (progressive systemic sclerosis)-- meaning "hard skin", a
   disease that may cause a thickening of the skin and problems with the
   blood vessels, joints, kidneys, lungs, digestive tract and bowels, and
   systemic lupus erythematosus (see "Lupus" for full definition).


For more information, contact :


                          
		Arthritis Foundation
		Northeastern New York Chapter
		1237 Central Avenue
		Albany, New York 12205
		(518) 459-5082
		
		NYS Department of Health
		Empire State Plaza
		Corning Tower
		Albany, New York 12237
		(518) 474-7354
		
		National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, Digestive 
		and Kidney Diseases
		U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 
		Public Health Service
		National Institutes of Health 
		Bethesda, Maryland 20892 
		(301) 496-8188



Article 89 of New York State Education Law


   This section of the State Education Law defines the educational
   responsibilities that each local school district's Board of Education (
   BOE) and the State Education Department have for providing services for
   children with handicapping conditions. These responsibilities include
   identifying and accounting for all pupils who are disabled and reside
   within the school district, determining the extent to which an
   individual pupil's educational performance is adversely affected by a
   handicapping condition, and providing a free appropriate public
   education for such pupils through specially designed educational
   programs and services in keeping with the unique needs of each pupil.
   The Board is also required to review, at least annually, the
   appropriateness of the special education programs and services provided
   by the school district. In fulfilling each of these important
   responsibilities, every pupil' s right to procedural due process (see
   term for definition) must be safeguarded. Parts 100 and 200 of the
   Rules and Regulations of the Commissioner of Education delineates what
   must be done to implement the law (See Part 100 and Part 200 for more
   information). State law also requires each BOE to appoint a Committee on
   Special Education (CSE) to assist it in meeting these responsibilities
  . The CSE membership must include at least a school psychologist, a
   teacher or administrator of special education, a school physician, and a
   parent of a child with a disability residing in the district. (See
   Committee on Special Education for more detailed information.) 


For more information, contact : 


		Office of Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions 
		State Education Department 
		Education Building Annex 
		Albany, New York 12234
		(518) 474-5548


Assistive Listening Devices


   This term refers to personal (individual) acoustic communication
   equipment that could be made available in facilities such as public
   auditoriums to improve the transmission and auditory reception of sound
   for persons who are hearing impaired. Such equipment may include
   transmission of sound through an amplitude modulation signal (AM), a
   frequency modulation signal (FM), an audio induction loop (an antenna-
   type device which acts as a miniature transmitter/receiver) or an
   infrared light sound system (a system similar to an audio induction
   loop, but which uses infrared light to transmit and receive audio
   signals instead of electrical impulses). Legislation in New York State
   was passed in 1987 which requires that the Governor's Press Room, the
   Senate and Assembly Chambers and the Hearing Rooms in the Legislative
   Office Building be equipped with assistive listening devices. 


For more information, contact : 


		Burke Rehabilitation Center
		785 Mamaroneck Avenue
		White Plains, New York 10605
		(914) 948-0050
		
		Hearing Rehabilitation Center
		Albany Medical Center Hospital
		New Scotland Avenue
		Albany, New York 12208
		(518) 445-4535
		
		Manhattan Eye Ear and Throat Hospital
		210 East 64th Street
		New York, New York 10021
		(212) 605-3739 or 3740
		
		Millneck Foundation
		P. O. Box 100
		Millneck, New York 11765
		(516) 922-3880
		
		National Technical Institute for the Deaf
		One Lomb Memorial Drive
		Rochester, New York 14623
		(716) 475-6476 or 6473
		
		
		New York League for the Hard of Hearing
		71 West 23rd Street
		New York, New York 10010
		(212) 741-7650
		(212) 255-1932 (TTY)
		
		Self Help National Information Center on Deafness
		Gallaudet University
		Washington, D. C. 20002
		(202) 651-5051



Asthma

                                    
   Asthma is a condition in which the air tubes (bronchial) of the lungs
   become narrowed by tightened muscles, mucus plugs, and swollen tissues
   causing difficulty in breathing. Many of the victims are young children.
   It accounts for about half of all chronic illness of childhood but can
   also affect adults. It may be caused by substances in the air to which
   an individual is sensitive, which causes an allergic reaction. Some of
   these substances are : pollens, molds, animal dander ; irritants like
   cigarette smoke, certain fragrances, etc. ; also certain food. It
   affects an estimated 6. 6 million persons throughout the United States
   (2. 7 million of whom are under 18 years old). 


For more information, contact : 


		American Lung Association of New York State
		8 Mountain View Avenue
		Albany, New York 12205
		(518) 459-4197



Ataxia


   This is a rather uncommon type of Cerebral Palsy, varying between one to
   15 per cent of the population of persons with CP. The person has a
   disturbed balance sense and has greatly decreased ability to maintain
   balance or coordination. The person may exhibit a high stepping gait and
   may stumble, lurch and fall easily. Nystagmus (involuntary rapid eye
   movement) and tremor of the head may be seen. 



Athetosis


   Athetosis is a type of Cerebral Palsy found in approximately 20 to 25
   percent of children with CP. Purposeful movements are contorted and the
   person has abnormal posturing and uncoordinated jerky, uncontrollable,
   twisting movements of the extremities. The head is often drawn back with
   the mouth open. In trying to talk, the person may grimace. Ability to
   walk may vary according to circumstances, perhaps improving when the
   person is not anxious and is well rested. 


Atlanto axial instability


   Atlanto axial instability is a condition which affects 10 to 12 percent
   of individuals with Down syndrome. Common symptoms are: (1) neck
   pain; (2) head tilted and rotated; (3) progressive or transient
   weakness; (4) change in gait pattern; (5) increased clumsiness; 
   (6) bowel or bladder incontinence; (7) hyperactive or spastic reflexes. 


   Treatment for this condition may include surgery. However, those
   individuals who are without symptoms may only need to have restrictions
   on some activities which flex and extend the neck such as tumbling,
   diving, etc. However, follow-up examinations and x-rays should be
   performed on a routine basis. 


Attendant/Attendant Care/Personal Care Assistant


   Attendant care, more recently called personal care assistance, refers to
   assistance in carrying out those activities of daily living which
   individuals are unable to adequately perform for themselves because of
   functional limitations. These limitations may be caused by physical,
   sensory, mental, or developmental impairment, and are usually of long-
   term duration. This service includes : assistance with basic self-care
   tasks, such as personal hygiene, dressing, grooming, eating, drinking,
   using and caring for assistive devices, communication and mobility ;
   home care tasks, such as cleaning, laundry, shopping and meal
   preparation; and cognitive tasks, such as managing finances, planning,
   and making decisions. 

For more information:


		Association of Independent Living Centers in New York, Inc. 
		190 Murray Street 
		Rochester, New York 14606 
		(716) 254-3650 
		(716) 546-6990 (TDD)


Audiology


   Audiologists provide and coordinate services to individuals who are
   hearing impaired, including prevention and detection of the problem and
   management of any existing communication handicaps. The broad
   categorical services that audiologists may provide include: 


   Audiologic evaluation which includes air conduction, bone conduction and
   speech thresholds, word / sentence recognition tests, acoustic emittance
   (impedance) tests, communication handicap inventories, evoked potential
   response tests, and electronystagmography. 


   Auditory prosthesis (e. g., hearing aid or assistive listening device)
   evaluation and auditory (aural) rehabilitation which may include
   orientation to auditory prosthesis, auditory training and speech reading
   training. 


For more information, contact : 


		New York State Speech Language Hearing Association 
		111 Washington Avenue
		Sixth Floor 
		Albany, New York 12210 
		(518) 463-5272 


Autism


   Autism can be defined as a bio-neurologically caused disorder of
   communication and behavior which can be present at birth or have its
   onset usually within the first 30 months of life. Autism occurs by
   itself or in association with other disorders which affect the functions
   of the brain such as viral infections, metabolic disturbances, and
   epilepsy. Characteristics of this developmental disability may include:
   slow development or lack of physical, social and learning skills,
   immature rhythms of speech, limited understanding of ideas, and use of
   words without attaching the usual meaning to them, abnormal responses to
   sensations such as sight, hearing, touch, pain, balance, smell, taste,
   the way a child holds his body, abnormal ways of relating to people,
   objects and events and repetitive movements such as rocking and
   spinning, head banging and hand twisting. Any one or a combination of
   these symptoms may be evident. 


For more information, contact : 


		New York State Society for Autistic Citizens
		Suite 201
		10 Colvin Avenue
		Albany, New York 12206
		(518) 459-1418
		
		NICHY (National Information Center for
		Handicapped Children and Youth)
		7926 Jones Branch Drive
		McLean, Virginia 22102
		(703) 893-6061
		
		The National Society for Children and
		Adults with Autism
		1234 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
		Suite 1017
		Washington, D. C. 20005
		(202) 783-0125



Biopsy


   The surgical removal of tissue from the living body for microscopic
   examination to aid in diagnosis of a disease or condition. 


Birth Defect


   A term which refers to disorders of body structure, function, or
   chemistry present at birth which may be inherited or may have resulted
   from environmental interference during embryonic (earliest stages of
   development) or fetal life (three or more months after conception). 


For more information: 


		Birth Defects Institute
		New York State Department of Health
		Empire State Plaza
		Corning Tower
		Albany, New York 12237
		(518) 474-7592
		

Blind and Visually Impaired See "Visually Impaired"


BOCES (Board of Cooperative Education Services)


   Made possible by legislation enacted in 1948. The major role of BOCES is
   to provide shared services which supplement and support the educational
   programs of two or more local districts. Through BOCES, school districts
   and the State Education Department have developed shared services in
   occupational education, in education for students who are disabled, in
   planning, in educational communications, and in many other endeavors.
   While other services vary from one BOCES to another, drug and health
   education programs, continuing education, staff development, data
   processing and cooperative purchasing are most often among those
   services available to subscriber local districts. Smaller school
   districts may receive specialized instructional services on a part-time,
   shared basis, to compensate for their low enrollment, population
   sparsity, and other conditions which may limit their capabilities. 


For more information, contact : 


		New York State Education Department
		Education Building
		Albany, New York 12234
		(518) 474-2251
		
		




MOST POPULAR DOCUMENTS:   ADA Accessibility Guidelines | Disabled Students in Higher Education | Caregiver Stress: Causes & Treatment | History of Disabilities and Social Problems | Disability Statistics | Using Knowledge and Technology
This site is maintained by Jennifer Weir, Disability Services at Texas A&M University -- Corpus Christi