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Half-Fare Program

   A program offered by the various mass transit companies and public
   transportation systems, primarily in metropolitan areas, that are
   receiving Federal funding. Persons over age 65, and those who are
   disabled or blind may receive a transit identification card which
   entitles them to half-fare at non-peak hours during the week; holidays
   are usually not included. For more information, contact your public
   transportation provider. 


   A publication put out periodically by the New York State Senate Select
   Committee on the Disabled to inform the public concerning laws, proposed
   legislation, Senate-sponsored programs, grant availability, scheduled
   Public Hearings and other topics that have specific impact on
   individuals with disabilities. 

To be placed on mailing list, please write to: 

		Senate Select Committee on the Disabled 
		Legislative Office Building
		Albany, New York 12247 
		(518) 455-2096 
		(518) 436-3597 (TDD)

Handicapped Parking

   This term refers to access to designated parking spaces based on the use
   of registration plates for persons who are disabled. New York State
   plates and permits are only issued to residents of the State. New York
   honors plates or permits issued to people from other states, U. S.
   districts or territories, or Canada. Information relating to handicapped
   parking is summarized in the terms below: 

   Registration Plates for the Disabled-- plates imprinted with the
   Universal Handicapped Symbol which are issued by the local Motor Vehicle
   Office for any non-commercial passenger vehicle, pick-up truck or van
   registered in the name of a qualified person. These plates permit a
   vehicle to be parked in certain designated areas (see below). 

   Handicapped Parking Permits-- these permits are issued by cities, towns
   and villages, usually through the Clerk's Office or Police Department to
   qualified individuals, even if the person has no vehicle registered. The
   permit may be displayed in any vehicle used to transport the individual
   whose name is on the permit. The permit is acceptable for handicapped
   parking anywhere in New York State, regardless of which locality issued
   the permit. 

   Temporary Permits-- a temporary permit may be issued by a locality to a
   person who is temporarily mobility impaired as certified by a physician.
   Temporary permits are recognized statewide, but are not valid for more
   than six months. 

   Special Vehicle Identification Permit (New York City) - - New York City
   issues handicapped parking permits, and local Motor Vehicle Offices
   issue registration plates for the disabled, but New York City has not
   established any on-street parking areas for the disabled. Therefore, a
   permit or plates would only be useful in New York City for parking in
   handicapped parking areas at shopping centers. The City does issue a
   "special vehicle identification permit" to qualified individuals which
   enables them to park in designated areas within New York City. For
   specifics contact the New York City Department of Traffic, 28-11 Queens
   Plaza, North Long Island City, New York 11101. 

   On-Street Handicapped Parking-- localities have the authority to
   designate parking spaces for the disabled on streets and highways under
   their jurisdiction. Only a vehicle with registration plates for the
   disabled or a handicapped parking permit, and actually being used to
   transport a qualified person, may park, stop or stand in these spaces.
   The sign posted to designate such spaces contains the International
   Symbol for Access. Fines for on-street handicapped parking violations
   are set by the locality which establishes and posts the space. 

   Off-Street Handicapped Parking-- shopping centers or facilities with at
   least five separate retail stores and at least 20 off-street parking
   spaces available to the public must designate at least five percent or
   10 clearly marked spaces (whichever number is less) for use only by
   people who are disabled. 

   Legislation passed in 1987 permits any agency licensed to transport
   persons with disabilities to obtain special parking permits so that they
   may have access to reserved handicapped parking space. 

   Plates for the people who are disabled and handicapped parking permits
   grant no other special parking privileges. They do not allow parking,
   stopping or standing in areas where parking, stopping or standing are
   illegal. They only grant the privilege of parking in areas specifically
   designated and posted as reserved for the disabled. Additional
   information is available from the local Division of Motor Vehicles. 

For more information, please contact: (free brochure) 

		New York State Office of Advocate for the Disabled 
		One Empire State Plaza 
		Albany, New York 12223 
		(518) 473-4129 
		(518) 473-4231 (TTY) 
		(800) 522-4369

Head Injury

   Serious head injuries usually result in prolonged loss of
   consciousness or coma. While it may be brief, lasting only a few
   minutes, it may extend to days or weeks. If the period of coma is
   brief, recovery to full or nearly full function is likely ; but as
   time in coma lengthens, emergence to a fully alert state can take a
   long time. The result of head injury can be intellectual impairment,
   speech problems, behavioral disorders and related physical
   disabilities. Most head injuries are due to accidents, but similar
   problems can result from conditions such as encephalitis (see term
   for definition), lack of oxygen to the brain and cerebral

   A person who is head injured may experience a range of physical,
   cognitive, and/or psychosocial symptoms in varying degrees: 

   Physical symptoms-- aphasia, visual impairment, hearing impairment
   (see terms for definitions), physical disability (including
   orthopedic involvement), spasticity, hemiparesis (a slight paralysis
   or weakness of one half of the face or body), paraplegia , and
   seizures ; 

   Cognitive symptoms-- deficits of short-term or long-term memory,
   perception, concentration, attention, planning and judgment, lack of
   foresight, decreased capacity for abstract thinking, difficulty in
   generalization, and spatial disorientation; 

   Psychosocial (including behavioral and emotional) symptoms--
   fatigueability, euphoria, denial, egocentricity, lack of self-
   esteem, disinhibition, depression, sexual dysfunction, inability to
   cope, and agitation. 

   While any or all of these symptoms may occur in varying degrees, factors
   which effect the outcome of head injury include: age at the time of
   injury, location of the areas of brain dysfunction, severity of the
   brain damage and the length of coma, time lapse between the occurrence
   of injury and the initiation of treatment, pre-existing intellectual
   skills, pre-existing personality characteristics, type of environment
   since the injury, motivation for recovery, family members' involvement,
   and rapid entry into a rehabilitation facility with programs for head
   injured persons. 

For more information, contact. 

		New York State Head Injury Association, Inc. 
		194 Washington Avenue
		Albany, New York 12210 
		(518) 434-3037
		National Head Injury Foundation, Inc. 
		333 Turnpike Road 
		Southboro, Massachusetts 01772 
		(617) 879-7473

Head Start

   Head Start is a Federal project which provides a comprehensive child
   development program for income eligible preschool children between
   ages three and five and their families. Services offered to each
   child include educational programs, a parent program and social
   services. Health services, including medical, dental, nutritional
   and mental health care are also provided. The Head Start program has
   developed a national network of Resource Access Projects (RAP) which
   assist local Head Start professionals in the implementation of
   services children with handicapping conditions. RAP staff provide
   training and technical assistance in New York State, and work with
   schools and other agencies in facilitating the transition of these
   children from Head Start to local district programs. They also
   collaborate with the State Education Department and other agencies
   in developing plans for serving preschool children who are 
    handicapped to ensure maximization of limited resources.            

Health Related Facility (HRF)                                           

   A residential health care facility providing 24 hour personal and
   health care services to residents who require more than room or
   board but less than the intensity of care provided by a nursing home. 
   Such people need, among other things, nursing supervision and
   minimal to moderate assistance with the activities of daily living.

Health Related Services

   Under New York State Public Health Law, Article 28, this means
   services in a facility which provides lodging, board and physical
   care including the recording of health information, dietary
   supervision and supervised hygienic services.


   Paralysis on one side of the body, usually referred to as a stroke.
   It may be caused by damage to the brain (on the side opposite the
   affected side), occurring from thrombosis (a blood clot within the
   blood vessel), embolism (obstruction of a blood vessel by a solid
   body like fat globules or tumor cells) or cerebral hemorrhage, or,
   less commonly, from a head injury or brain tumor. 


   A primarily hereditary life-long blood clotting disorder, which
   affects males almost exclusively, and is caused by the inactivity of
   one of the blood proteins necessary for clotting. A hemophiliac does
   not bleed faster than anyone else, but may bleed for a longer period
   of time due to the clotting problem. One of the major problems
   associated with this disorder is uncontrolled internal bleeding
   which can begin spontaneously without apparent cause. Over a period
   of time, bleeding into joints can cause permanent damage and chronic

For more information, contact : 

		The National Hemophilia Foundation
		The Soho Building
		110 Greene Street
		Room 406
		New York, New York 10012
		(212) 219-8180
		New York State Hemophilia Advisory Panel 
		NYS Health Department
		Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research 
		Empire State Plaza Albany, New York 12201 
		(518) 474-2821

Home Care Services

   Under Article 36 of the Public Health Law, effective April 1, 1978,
   this means an organization providing one or more of the following:
   nursing service, home health aide services (see definition),
   physical, speech or occupational therapy , nutritional services,
   medical and social services, personal care services , homemaker
   services (see definition), and housekeeper or chore services (see
   definition) which may be of a preventive, therapeutic,
   rehabilitative, health guidance and I or supporting nature to
   persons at home. 

Home Health Aide Services

   Under Article 36 of the Public Health Law, effective April 1, 1978,
   this term means the provision of simple health care, personal
   hygiene services, and housekeeping tasks essential to the patient's
   health, and other related supportive services. Such services are
   prescribed by a physician in accordance with a plan of treatment for
   the patient, and are under the supervision of a registered
   professional nurse, and of an appropriate professional physical,
   speech or occupational therapist (as needed). 

Home Health Care

   Health services provided to an individual as needed in the home.
   Services are provided to individuals who are aged, disabled, sick or
   convalescent, who do not need institutional care. They may be
   provided by a Visiting Nurse Association (VNA), a home health
   agency, hospital or other organized group.

Homemaker Services

   Under Article 36 of the New York State Public Health Law, effective
   April 1, 1978, this means assistance and instruction in managing and
   maintaining a household, dressing, feeding and incidental household
   tasks for persons at home because of illness, incapacity or the
   absence of a caretaker relative. Such services are provided by
   persons who meet standards established by the Department of Social

Home Relief

   A program under the Department of Social Services that provides
   financial assistance to individuals under the age of 65, who are
   blind, disabled, or unable to support themselves. Also, Home Relief
   provides interim financial assistance to those persons over 65 who
   have applied for and are awaiting approval of their Supplemental
   Security Income (SSI) application. 


   A program which provides palliative (moderating the intensity of
   the disease) and supportive care for terminally ill patients and
   their families. Hospice care may be delivered in the home, in the
   hospital, or in a non-affiliated facility. 

Hot Line

   A general term used for emergency telephone numbers, or direct phone
   lines to provide the caller with immediate assistance with a
   particular problem, agency or department. 

Some examples are:  Senate Hot Line (800) 342-9860-- provides
general information and status of current bills during the
Legislative Session; Insurance Hot Line (800) 342-3736-- general
information about insurance, insurance companies and policies;
Liability Insurance Hot Line (800) 522-4370-- provides New York
State businesses and not-for-profit agencies with information
regarding obtaining commercial liability insurance; Professional
Conduct Hot Line (800) 442-8106-- enables the caller to register
complaints or make inquiries concerning practices in the professions
licensed by the State Board of Regents; Senior Citizens Hot Line 1-
800-342-9871--assistance for senior citizens with any problem; New
York State Office of Advocate for the Disabled Hot Line ((800) 522-
4369) -- serves to provide information on accessibility, education,
employment, transportation and other issues affecting people with

Housekeeper Services or Chore Services

   Under Article 36 of the NYS Public Health Law, effective April 1,
   1978, this means light work or household tasks which do not require
   the services of a trained homemaker. Such services may be provided
   for persons at home because of illness, incapacity or the absence of
   a caretaker relative, by persons who meet the standards established
   by the Department of Social Services. 

Huntington's Disease

   Huntington's Chorea or Huntington's Disease is a genetically
   determined disease with slow progressive degeneration of the nerve
   cells of the basal ganglia (area at the base of the brain which
   modifies and coordinates voluntary muscle movement), and cerebral
   cortex (outer layer of the brain which functions in coordination of
   higher nervous activity). Huntington's is characterized by slurred
   speech, grimacing, mental disturbances (i. e. irritability and
   instability), irregular and spasmodic movements, and progressive
   mental deterioration. Age of onset is usually in the mid-thirties. 

For more information, contact : 

		National Huntington's Disease Association
		1182 Broadway, Suite 402
		New York, New York 10001
		(212) 684-2781


   Hydrocephalus, or "water on the brain, " is a birth defect, the
   cause of which is not always clear. It can develop before birth in
   association with an infection, or begin at the time of birth as the
   result of a brain hemorrhage caused by birth trauma, or later in
   childhood as a complication of meningitis (infection of the cover of
   the brain). The so-called "water" is actually cerebrospinal fluid (
   a liquid which cushions and protects the brain and spinal cord from
   shock). The fluid is produced in the ventricles (cavities) of the
   brain, and normally flows through the ventricles, bathes the
   surfaces of the brain and spinal cord, and is absorbed into the
   bloodstream. In hydrocephalus, however, the fluid gets trapped in
   the ventricles and does not enter the bloodstream. The excess fluid
   causes the ventricles to expand and the brain to become larger. As a
   result, pressure is exerted on the skull and the fontanels (a baby's
   "soft spots"), and the head begins to grow. Unless relieved quickly,
   brain damage may result. It can cause mental retardation, blindness,
   seizures and motor impairment. Often, hydrocephalus can be treated
   by the surgical insertion of a shunt (a tube from the brain to
   another part of the body). This tube permits the fluid to be drained
   to another part of the body, where it is absorbed into the

For more information, contact : 

		Birth Defects Institute
		New York State Health Department
		Empire State Plaza
		Albany, New York 12237
		(518) 474-1929
		Guardians of Hydrocephalus
		Research Foundation
		2618 Avenue Z
		Brooklyn, New York 11235
		(212) 648-0025

Hyperactivity (Hyperkinetic Syndrome)

   Hyperactivity is often used interchangeably with the term
   "hyperkinesis. " Hyperkinesis describes a condition in which the
   individual displays a high degree of physical activity which has no
   purpose, plus a significantly impaired attention span. The person is
   unable to control motion and/or attention. Many physicians have
   described hyperkinesis as a treatable illness characterized by
   involuntary behavior and learning problems in a child whose brain
   maturation is delayed. 

IEP Diploma

   The IEP diploma which is awarded to students who are identified as
   handicapped on the basis of having successfully achieved the goals
   and objectives of the Individualized Education Plan (IEP), shall be
   provided by public school districts and may be awarded by non-public
   schools to students during the school year in which the student has
   reached his / her twenty-first birthday. 

   For those students who wish to leave school prior to their twenty-
   first year, upon application of the student or his/her parents, the
   school district may approve the granting of such a diploma if they
   feel that the student has achieved the goals of the IEP as long as
   the student has, by that time, completed twelve years of school
   beyond kindergarten. 

   If such a diploma is granted at that time, the diploma must be
   accompanied with a statement that informs the individual that he/she
   may return to school without payment of tuition until such time as
   that person either earns a "regular" diploma or until the end of the
   school year in which the student reaches the age of twenty-one. 

   The IEP diploma must be clearly annotated on the front to indicate
   that the diploma is based upon the successful achievement of the
   student's IEP. 

   Under legislation passed in 1987, the Civil Service law now allows
   that whenever that department and/or a municipal civil service
   commission requires a high school diploma as a minimum requirement
   to be eligible to take a competitive examination, a high school IEP
   diploma, which has been granted to a student with a handicapping
   condition, shall be accepted in full satisfaction of that

For more information, contact : 

		Office of Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions
		State Education Department, 10th Floor
		Albany, New York 12234
		(518) 474-5548
		Bureau of Protection and Advocacy (P&A)
		New York State Commission on Quality Care
		99 Washington Avenue, 10th Floor
		Albany, New York 12210
		(518) 473-7378
Immune System

   The immune system is the body's basic defense against infection. In
   simple terms, it involves white blood cells, which contain
   antibodies or disease fighters, resisting foreign bodies or
   infection. Immunity can be innate (from inherited qualities) or it
   can be acquired actively or passively, naturally or artificially.
   Active immunity is acquired naturally during an infectious disease,
   or artificially by vaccination; passive immunity is acquired
   naturally when maternal antibody passes to the child through the
   placenta (organ developed in approximately the third month of
   pregnancy through which the fetus is supplied with nourishment and
   oxygen, and through which the fetus gets rid of its waste products)
   or in the milk, or artificially by administering immune sera (watery
   portions of blood remaining after coagulation) containing antibody.
   The immune system is usually beneficial because it protects the
   body, but sometimes the antibodies can be harmful such as in causing
   the body to reject a transplanted organ. 

Impartial Hearing

   An impartial hearing is a term used to describe a forum in which the
   non-agreeing parties who wish to testify present their information
   before a non-related, non-affiliated mediator, who will then resolve
   the dispute based on the presentations. Relating to the education
   process, an impartial hearing is a formal procedure, which may be
   requested by parent or school district, used to resolve disagreement
   between parents and school districts over the provision of special
   education and related services (see term for definition). The Board
   of Education arranges for the location of the hearing and appoints
   the impartial hearing officer from a list of persons on file.
   Impartial hearing officers may not be employees of the district or
   the BOCES in which the district is a component. Conducted somewhat
   like a court proceeding, impartial hearings are closed to the public
   unless the parent requests an open session. Procedures include: the
   prior exchange of documents to be used during the hearing; calling
   of witnesses by the school district and the parents to provide
   information and to respond to questions on the issue; verbatim
   record of the proceedings for future reference ; and, rendering of
   an impartial decision by the officer. The hearing provides both
   parties with the opportunity for presenting their argument to
   determine a fair resolution of the matter. 

(See Due Process for more information.) 


   The inability to retain the evacuations of the bowels or bladder, or
   both, sometimes caused by a disorder of these organs, but more often
   by injuries to or diseases of the spinal cord and brain, including
   traumatic paraplegia and spina bifida. (See terms for definitions.) 

Independent Living Centers

   In 1978, the Legislature identified a need for independent living
   services for the severely disabled to be provided through consumer-
   based organizations distributed evenly throughout the State. Through
   legislation, the New York State Office of Vocational Rehabilitation
   has been given the responsibility and authority for the planning,
   development, funding, evaluation and monitoring of the Independent
   Living Centers (ILC's). As a result, ILC's were established in
   Buffalo, Rochester, Utica, Syracuse, Albany, Manhattan, White
   Plains, Brooklyn and Levittown. In 1982, the State Legislature
   enacted legislation to provide funds for the already established
   ILC's, and to initiate new centers in Yonkers, Jamestown,
   Poughkeepsie, Binghamton, Kingston, the counties of Queens and Bronx
   and the township of Brookhaven, with a satellite center in Central
   Islip. In 1983, the Independent Living Center Program was amended to
   include the establishment of a center in Staten Island. As of 1988,
   there are thirty-four ILC ' s in New York State. Not all centers
   have identical services, but each provides the following "core
   services": peer counseling, housing assistance, information and
   referral, advocacy, special transportation, independent living
   skills (i. e. consumer education, money management, mobility
   training, leisure time management), equipment maintenance, TTY
   (teletypewriter for the deaf-- see term for explanation) and
   architectural barrier consultation. 

For more information, contact : 

		Association for Independent Living Centers in New York, Inc.
		758 South Avenue
		Rochester, New York 14620
		(716) 271-4950

Individualized Education Program (IEP)

   As mandated by Public Law 94-142 of 1975 (see specific term for
   definition), an Individualized Education Program (IEP) is a
   written statement developed for each child with a handicapping
   condition who requires special educational services. The actual task
   of developing the IEP falls with the Committee on Special Education
   (CSE) (see specific term for definition), the parents, the child,
   if appropriate, and other appropriate persons including the child '
   s teacher. 

   The CSE develops Phase I with the parents. Included in Phase I of
   the IEP must be the present levels of performance and individual
   needs, classification of handicapping condition, annual goals and
   instructional objectives, recommended program, date for initiation
   of special education, special equipment and adaptive devices,
   testing modifications and recommended placement. Also to be included
   in Phase I would be opportunities for student to be integrated into
   classes with students who are not disabled. To the contrary, if it
   is decided that there is a reason why a student should not have
   these opportunities, but instead be placed into a segregated program
   or facility, justification for a more restrictive environment must
   also be placed in Phase I of the IEP. 

   Phase II is developed with at least the child's teacher, the parents
   of the child and the child, if appropriate. If the child is going to
   be receiving special education for the first time, a supervisor or
   provider of special education, a member of the evaluation team, a
   representative of the school district or agency responsible for
   developing Phase I of the IEP and other individuals invited by
   school and/or parents shall attend the meeting. 

   Phase II must be held within thirty school days of a child's entry
   into the program, whether that be at point of initial placement or
   in the fall of each year.

   Phase II includes statements of short-term objectives which are in
   concert with the goals identified in Phase I. These objectives are
   worked on during daily, weekly and monthly activities and must be
   developed for each area of the special education program and
   services that the child receives. 

   From the point of initial entry into special education on a yearly
   basis, an Annual Review must take place. This Annual Review is done
   to evaluate the progress of the student, to consider changing the
   present program, to recommend additional support or to possibly
   recommend removing the child from special education. This meeting in
   which the Annual Review is conducted, actually results in the
   development of a new Phase I of the IEP for the upcoming school

For further information, contact : 

		Office of Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions
		State Education Department
		Education Building Annex
		Albany, New York 12234
		(518) 474-5548
		Bureau of Protection and Advocacy
		New York State Commission on Quality of Care
		99 Washington Avenue, 10th Floor
		Albany, New York 12210
		(518) 473-7378
		New York State Association for Retarded Children, Inc.
		393 Delaware Avenue
		Delmar, New York 12054
		(518) 439-8311

Information Exchange on Young Adult Chronic Patients, Inc.

The Information Exchange is a non-profit organization devoted to
collection and dissemination of information in the field of research
and treatment for young adult chronic patients. 

For more information, contact : 

		The Information Exchange on Young Adult Chronic Patients, Inc.
		500 New Hempstead Road
		New City, New York 10956
		(914) 634-0050
In-Home Services

   General term to denote services such as short-term companions,
   personal care and housekeeping, to help people who might otherwise
   be prematurely institutionalized. 


   A term referring to the placement of a person in a non-community
   based residential care facility (i. e. Developmental Center)
   which houses and provides services for a large number of residents. 

Intermediate Care Facility (ICF)

   A supervised living facility for people who are developmentally
   disabled, which provides additional health and rehabilitative
   services. Funded through Medicaid with a 50% federal share, the rest
   of the expenses are covered by matching state and county funds.
   Individuals in an ICF do not require the degree of care or treatment
   which a hospital or skilled nursing facility is designed to provide,
   but because of their mental or physical condition, they require care
   and services above the level of room and board. 

International Symbol for Access

   The symbol recognized locally, statewide, nationally and throughout
   the world to designate services, accessibility and accommodations
   for people with disabilities (i.e. handicapped parking, restrooms,
   methods of entrance and egress, telephones with amplifying devices).

Interpreting/Interpreter Services

   A signed and fingerspelled presentation (see Sign Language) of
   a person's spoken communication; or, verbal presentation of a
   person's signed communication. 

For more information, contact : 

		New York State Chapter Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf
		DES 08-A1 52
		One Lomb Memorial Drive
		Rochester, New York  14623-0887
		(716) 475-2895

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