Cornucopia of Disability Information

Coming to Terms with Disabilities: j thru m

CODI Directory

CODI Archives

Contact Webmaster

Back to Coming to Terms with Disabilities

Job Accommodation Network


   The President's Committee on Employment of the Handicapped
   (PCEH) (see term for definition) has established the Job
   Accommodation Network (JAN), a toll-free computerized
   information system for employers who want to hire qualified
   applicants who are disabled, but who are unsure about job
   accommodations needed for the potential employee. JAN enables
   employers (and eventually these applicants) to share
   information on a national scale about specific proven solutions
   to job accommodation problems. The project's data base is at
   the West Virginia University Research and Training Center, a
   grantee of the National Institute of Handicapped Research. To
   receive accommodation information, employers can call (800) 
   JAN-PCEH, except in West Virginia where the number is 1-304-
   293-7186. 


Job Index (AFB)


   Initiated in 1982 by the American Foundation for the Blind
   (AFB), Job Index is a national data and networking resource on
   the competitive employment of persons who are blind or visually
   impaired. It is a unique information source on how people with
   visual disabilities heard about, applied for, obtained, and are
   productively managing their jobs. As a result of detailed
   responses from employees in a wide range of business,
   government, and industrial settings, the Job Index contains 500
   listings, and includes information on job title, how the job
   was attained, tasks performed, assistive devices used,
   financing of assistive devices, accommodations made by the
   employer, educational and previous work history, rehabilitation
   training received after onset of visual handicap, and career
   path planning. The Job Index offers the respondent either named
   or anonymous listing, and provides potential employers and
   employees with specific contacts and examples in the areas of
   networking (for speakers or for recommendations), application
   and financing of new technology , role modeling (non-
   traditional jobs), and state and local policy planning. 


For more information, contact : 


		American Foundation for the Blind
		15 West 16th Street
		New York, New York 10011
		(212) 620-2037
		TDD (212) 620-2158
		

Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA)


   The Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) replaced the Comprehensive
   Employment and Training Act (CETA) in 1983 as the National Program
   to prepare youth and unskilled adults for the labor force, and to
   afford job training to economically disadvantaged individuals and
   others facing serious barriers to employment. The program was
   established with the passage of Public Law 97-300. 


For more information, contact : 


		New York State Department of Labor
		Department of Labor Building
		State Office Campus
		Washington Avenue
		Albany, New York 12240
		(518) 457-0361


Katie Beckett Law (and New York State Implementation)


   In November, 1981, President Ronald Reagan drew attention to a
   three-year old child, Katie Beckett, who was then hospitalized in
   the State of Iowa. Katie was being treated in a hospital at a
   monthly cost of $12, 000 to $14,000, despite the fact that her
   medical condition could have been treated less expensively at home.
   She was eligible to receive Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
   because her medical condition was determined to be chronically
   disabling and because her income (without regard to her parents'
   income) was determined to be below the established limit ;
   therefore, Medicaid was paying for the full cost of her
   hospitalization. However, if Katie returned home to live with her
   parents, their income would be considered, and since it was in
   excess of SSI eligibility levels, Katie would have lost both SSI and
   Medicaid so that her parents would have had to pick up the costs of
   her care at home. Because of the widespread publicity given to the
   Katie Beckett case, and in recognition of the cost savings that
   would accrue in the Medicaid program if she were to move home,
   Congress enacted, as part of the Federal Tax Equity and Fiscal
   Responsibility Act of 1982 (P.L. 97-248), a provision which gives
   states the option of providing Medicaid coverage to certain children
   at home. 


   ln 1984, Chapter 906 was enacted by the New York State Legislature
   to expand medical assistance (Medicaid) eligibility to certain
   severely ill or children with disabilities living at home, provided
   that the cost of home care is no more expensive than comparable
   institutional care. The Commissioner of Social Services was directed
   to assess the feasibility of providing home and community-based
   services (while retaining medical assistance eligibility) for
   persons who are 18 years of age or under, and who are: physically
   disabled according to the Supplemental Security Income program
   criteria; hospitalized or receiving care in a skilled nursing
   facility (SNF) for at least 30 consecutive days, or receiving care
   in an Intermediate Care facility (ICF) for persons who are
   developmentally disabled for at least 180 consecutive days; in need
   of the level of care provided by an SNF or ICF for those who are
   mentally retarded; capable of being cared for in the community, if
   provided with case management services and / or respite care
   services ; ineligible for medical assistance, if living in the
   community, because the income and resources of responsible relatives
   would be deemed available to such persons, causing them to exceed
   the income or resources eligibility level for such assistance;
   capable of being cared for at less cost in the community than in the
   appropriate institutional setting; and able to meet other criteria
   to be established by the Commissioner in order to run the program. 


For details of this program, contact your local Department of Social
Services or: 


		New York State Department of Social Services
		40 North Pearl Street
		Albany, New York 12243
		(518) 474-9428
		
		
Kidney Disease


   Kidneys are organs responsible for filtering or cleansing the blood,
   and secreting waste from the body to the bladder in the form of
   urine. Kidney disease is a general term that includes diseases
   ranging from urinary tract infections, to kidney stones (a hardening
   of mineral salt around organic material found in the kidney), to
   more serious disorders such as polycystic kidney disease-- a
   progressive hereditary disease in which cysts that increase in size
   form in the kidneys and may eventually cause kidney failure;
   nephrosis-- a condition that causes the kidneys to remove too much
   protein from the blood as it is filtered through the kidneys,
   causing the kidneys to retain excess amounts of salt and fluid
   resulting in swelling around the eyes, abdomen, ankles and hands;
   and, chronic kidney failure--gradual and permanent loss of kidney
   function which allows harmful waste products and fluid to accumulate
   in the body resulting in growth stops or delays, elevation of blood
   pressure, fatigue and poor appetite. 


For more information, contact : 


		American Kidney Fund
		7315 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 203E
		Bethesda, Maryland 20814
		(301) 986-1444 or (800) 638-8299
		
		Kidney Foundation of Northeast New York, Inc.
		4 Airline Drive
		Albany, New York 12205
		(518) 869-4666


Kids' Project


   The Kids' Project, which is sponsored by the New York State Office
   of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, is a puppet
   show that is designed to teach non-disabled children about various
   disabilities, and to show them that being disabled never stopped
   anyone from being a good classmate, a good friend and shouldn't keep
   a person from leading a satisfying life. The puppet show, usually
   presented by two specialists in the field of disabilities, features
   five disabled and two non-disabled puppets which teach what it's
   like to be blind, deaf, mentally retarded, to have cerebral palsy or
   a learning disability. The puppets do not aim at preaching that "we
   are all alike. " What they want children to learn is that even
   though the persons who are disabled are different, they can lead
   full and satisfying lives and instead of being ignored, they are
   potential playmates and even friends. 


For more information, contact : 


		New York State Office of Mental Retardation & 
		Developmental Disabilities 
		44 Holland Avenue 
		Albany, New York 12229 
		(518) 474-6601
		
		
Kneeling Bus


   A term used to describe a specially designed bus with a hydraulic
   device that lowers the right front section in order to bring the
   steps closer to the ground. This makes entry and exit for persons
   who are elderly and persons who are disabled much easier. 


Language Disorders


   Language Disorders include, but are not limited to, impairment or
   deviant development of comprehensive and/or use of spoken, written
   and/or other symbol system (e. g. sign language, augmentative
   communication systems, etc. The disorder may involve (1) the form
   of language (phonologic, morphologic and syntactic systems), (2)
   the content of language (semantic) system and / or (3) the
   function of language in communication (pragmatic) system in any
   combination. 


For more information, contact : 


		New York State Speech-Language-Hearing Association 
		111 Washington Avenue 6th Floor 
		Albany, New York 12210 
		(518) 463-5272
		
		
Learning Disabilities


   In 1975, the Federal government defined learning disabilities in
   Public Law 94-142, The Education of All Handicapped Children Act, (
   see term for definition) as follows: " Specific learning disability
   means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes
   involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written,
   which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think,
   speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. The
   term includes such conditions as perceptual handicaps, brain injury,
   minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The
   term does not include children who have learning problems which are
   primarily the result of visual, hearing or motor handicaps, mental
   retardation, emotional disturbance or environmental, cultural, or
   economic disadvantage." 


   In 1981, the Rehabilitation Service Administration accepted learning
   disabilities in adults as a medically recognizable disability which
   enabled such individuals to receive job training services under the
   following definition: " Specific learning disabilities is a disorder
   in one or more of the central nervous system processes involving
   perceiving, understanding and/or using concepts through verbal
   (spoken or written language) or nonverbal means. This disorder
   manifests itself with difficulties in one or more of the following
   areas : attention, reasoning, memory, communicating, reading,
   writing, spelling, calculation, coordination, social competence, and
   emotional maturity. The resulting disorder must result in a
   substantial handicap to employment. " 

   Although defined in these instances, each child, adolescent or adult
   with learning disabilities shows a different combination and
   severity of problems. Characteristics used in diagnosing learning
   disabilities include: short attention span, poor memory, difficulty
   following directions, inadequate ability to discriminate between and
   among letters, numerals, or sounds, poor reading ability, eye-hand
   coordination problems, difficulties with sequencing, disorganization
   and numerous other problems which may affect all of the sensory
   systems. 


For more information, contact : 


		New York Association for the Learning Disabled 
		155 Washington Avenue 
		Albany, New York 12210 
		(518) 436-4633
		
		Child Research and Study Center
		The University at Albany, SUNY
		1400 Washington Avenue
		Albany, New York 12222
		(518) 442-3770
		
		Foundation for Children with Learning Disabilities (FCLD) 
		P. O. Box 2929 
		Grand Central Station 
		New York, New York 10016 
		(212) 687-7211
		
		National Network of Learning Disabled Adults (NNLDA) 
		808 North 82nd Street, Room #F2 
		Scottsdale, Arizona 85257
		

Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) 

   The concept of the least restrictive environment (LRE) is
   stated in Federal law (see "Public Law 94-142") and implemented
   through efforts of states and local school districts. LRE
   assures the opportunity for each student with an educational
   handicap to receive programs and support services which
   consider each child on an individual basis. In other words,
   children should not be placed into a more segregated setting
   because that is the only place that the appropriate program
   exists or because of lack of space in public school buildings.
   A child should only be placed into a more restrictive setting
   when it is proven by the CSE that the child cannot benefit from
   being in an integrated environment. 


For more information, contact : 


		Office for Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions
		New York State Education Department Room 1073 
		Education Building Annex 
		Albany, New York 12234 
		(518) 474-5548
		
		Bureau of Protection and Advocacy 
		New York State Commission on Quality of Care 
		99 Washington Avenue, 10th Floor 
		Albany, New York 12210 
		(518) 473-7378
		

Libraries for the Blind and Physically Handicapped


   The Pratt-Smoot Act of 1931 established a national library program
   to be coordinated by the Library of Congress to serve adults who are
   blind. Although service was limited initially to these individuals,
   federal legislation in 1952 broadened eligibility to include
   children in 1966, and those with physical handicaps who were unable
   to read printed materials. Regional libraries were established as
   part of the nationwide network coordinated by the National Library
   Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped of the Library of
   Congress to serve patrons of all ages who are visually and / or
   physically disabled. 


   The New York State Library for the Blind and Visually Handicapped (
   serving the 55 counties of Upstate New York) and the New York Public
   library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (serving New York
   City and Long Island, with subregional libraries in Suffolk and
   Nassau Counties) are part of a network of 58 regional libraries
   across the country. The major objective of the regional library is
   to provide print-handicapped individuals (those who have difficulty
   reading printed material, holding a book, or have another condition
   which impedes access to printed materials) with access to the same
   library programs and services available to non-print handicapped
   persons. While all regional libraries receive the same materials
   from the National Library Service, the level of services able to be
   provided varies. 


   The New York State Library for the Blind and Visually Handicapped,
   located in Albany, has the facilities to provide, among its numerous
   services, books in Braille, disc, and cassette format as well as
   specially designed playback equipment which are available without
   charge to eligible readers. Upstate Update, an informational
   newsletter, is also available. In addition, a Public Service Center
   in the State Library allows patrons access to the extensive print
   and microfiche collections which they may use with the assistance of
   reading aids. The library's Kurzweil Reading Machine uses a
   computer-drive scanning device and voice synthesizer to read printed
   material to the user. 


   The New York Public Library for the Blind and Physically
   Handicapped, along with its subregional libraries, can provide books
   and magazines in Braille, disc (record) and cassette form to
   individuals, of all ages, with the following certified disabilities
   : visually impaired, totally blind, physically handicapped, learning
   disabled. Both libraries provide special recorders and tape players.


For information on how to access this library system, contact : 


		New York State Library for the Blind and Visually Handicapped
		Cultural Education Center
		Empire State Plaza
		Albany, New York 12230
		(800 342-3688 (message recording number to request books, 
		report service problems, and notify the Library of such things 
		as change of address)
		(800) 342-3111 (information/reader advisory number)
		
		National Library Service for the Blind and Physically 
		Handicapped
		Library of Congress
		Washington, D. C. 20542
		(202) 287-5100
		
		New York Public Library for the Blind and Physically 
		Handicapped
		166 Avenue of the Americas
		New York, New York 10013
		(212) 925-1011 (M-F 9-5)
		(212) 925-9699 (24 hour answering machine)
		

Limited Mobility


   A term which generally refers to the inability of an individual to
   move about easily because of a physical disability. This term also
   refers to the situation which exists due to the lack of accessible
   transportation systems and services which severely limits the
   ability of persons who are elderly and disabled to travel easily
   locally and statewide. 


Long Term Care


   A general term used to describe the services provided in any type of
   facility where individuals or patients stay for longer than 30 days
   at a time. A hospital is generally not a long term care facility. 


Long Term Home Health Care Program


   Article 36 of the Public Health Law, effective April 1, 1978,
   describes a coordinated plan of care and services provided at home
   to persons who are infirm or disabled and who would require
   placement in a hospital or residential health care facility for an
   extended period of time if such program were unavailable. Such
   programs shall be provided in the person's home or in the home of a
   responsible relative or other responsible adult. 


Lou Gehrig's Disease (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)


   Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a rapidly progressive neuromuscular
   disorder of adults resulting from degeneration of the motor nerves
   in the spinal cord and brain stem, and leading to atrophy (wasting
   away or shrinking) of the muscles controlled by these nerves in the
   hands, arms, feet, legs, and tongue. It can produce a combination of
   both flaccid (weakness, lack of control) and spastic (involuntary
   muscular contraction) paralysis which may cause difficulty in
   swallowing, speaking and breathing. 


For more information, contact : 


		Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Association
		185 Madison Avenue
		Suite 1001
		P. O. Box 2130
		New York, New York 10016
		(212) 679-4016


Lowe's Syndrome


   Also known as the oculo-cerebrorenal (eye-brain-kidney) syndrome,
   Lowe's Syndrome is a rare genetic condition affecting males which
   results in multiple handicaps. Symptoms may include congenital
   cataracts (a clouding of the lens of the eye which obstructs the
   passage of light), glaucoma (pressure within the eyeball that can
   result in the gradual loss of vision), intellectual impairment,
   hypotonia (poor muscle tone), renal tubular dysfunction (a kidney
   disorder resulting in the abnormal loss of nutrients in the urine),
   acidosis (a disturbance of the body' s acid-base balance which can
   be a serious threat to health), a tendency to develop rickets (a
   disease characterized by soft and malformed bones) and other bone
   problems, short stature, and in some cases, seizures. 


For more information, contact : 


		Lowe's Syndrome Association
		222 Lincoln Street
		West Lafayette, Indiana 47906
		(317) 743-3634
		
		
Lupus (Lupus Erythematosus)


   Lupus erythematosus, or Lupus as it is commonly known, is a chronic
   inflammatory disease affecting connective tissue. It may affect only
   the skin in some people; in others it may affect virtually any organ
   in the body, including the skin, joints, kidneys, brain, lungs,
   heart, blood and immune system. Lupus can be present in varying
   degrees of severity, from mild to severe. There are two main types
   of Lupus, depending on which part of the body is affected. The first
   type is called Discoid Lupus. It involves only the skin, usually on
   the face, neck, and sometimes the upper chest. It may cause raised,
   scaly areas of the skin. The second type of Lupus, usually more
   severe, is called Systemic Lupus. It involves the internal systems
   of the body and organs. A skin rash may be present in both types. It
   is not contagious nor is it thought to be hereditary. Since Systemic
   Lupus can affect any part of the body, there are a great variety of
   symptoms that can be present. The most commonly present symptoms
   are: fatigue, pain in the joints or chest, unexplained low-grade
   fever, red skin rash (often a butterfly shaped rash across the
   bridge of the nose and cheeks, frequently occurring after sun
   exposure), abnormal hair loss, and, blanching of ringers after
   exposure to cold. 


For more information, contact : 


		Lupus Foundation of America, Inc.
		Central New York Chapter
		423 Onondaga Street
		Syracuse, New York 13202
		(315) 471-7788
		
		Lupus Foundation of America, Inc.
		Northeastern New York Chapter
		126 State Street
		Albany, New York 12207
		(518) 465-3603
		
		SLE Foundation, Inc.
		95 Madison Avenue
		Suite 1402
		New York, New York 10016
		(212) 685-4118
		
		Westchester Lupus Foundation, Inc.
		45 Wall Street
		Valhalla, New York 10594
		(914) 948-1032
		
		
Mainstreaming


   A term, when used regarding special education (see term for
   definition), that refers to the integration of children with
   disabilities into programs and courses of study attended by their
   non-disabled peers. This may be done for purposes of academic and/or
   social reasons. 


Means Test


   A procedure for determining eligibility of applicants for various
   human services programs, on the basis of ability to pay. Criteria
   include income (i.e. employment, investments, Social Security,
   pension) and necessary living (i. e. rent, food) expenses. 


Medicaid


   Medicaid (Medical Assistance Programs-- Title XIX) is a federally-
   aided, state-operated and administered program, to provide physical
   and related health care services to persons with low incomes.
   Persons with disabilities may be eligible for Medicaid on the basis
   of their income. Eligibility is determined by the State program of
   public assistance (welfare) on the basis of broad federal
   guidelines, so there are geographic differences between eligibility
   requirements and types of services covered. Each state establishes
   its own eligibility requirements for Medicaid. Generally, persons
   may be eligible if they are receiving welfare or other public
   assistance benefits, or Supplemental Security Income (see term for
   definition), or are blind or disabled. Individuals with higher
   incomes may be eligible for Medicaid Supplemental Medical Care
   Assistance, or their children may be eligible if medical expenses
   exceed a given percentage of their annual income. 

Further information is available from your local or state
welfare or public assistance office, or :


		New York State Department of Social Services 
		40 North Pearl Street 
		Albany, New York 12243 
		(518) 474 9516
		
		
Medicare


   A nationwide, federal health insurance program (Title XVIII)
   designed to serve everyone over 65 years of age and persons
   who are disabled under 65 years of age who have been
   entitled to receive Social Security disability benefits for
   a total of 24 months; or who need dialysis treatments or
   kidney transplant because of permanent kidney failure. The
   program is not based on income, but is available regardless
   of financial need. The Medicare program has two parts: Part
   A-- hospital insurance at no cost that helps pay for care
   while in the hospital and for related health care services
   after leaving the hospital; and Part B-- voluntary medical
   insurance at a monthly premium that helps pay doctor bills
   and other approved medical services. 


More information about Medicare is available from your local
Social Security Office, or by writing to: 


                Health Care Financing Administration
                Inquiries Branch
                Room 1-N-4, East Lowrise Building
                Baltimore, Maryland 21235
                (518) 594-9622


Mental Illness


   A term used to describe a chronic or intermittent disability
   which is associated with an impairment of one or more
   important areas of functioning such as social behavior,
   rational thinking, feeling or judgment. Symptoms and types
   of mental illness are varied from individual to individual,
   and may include neurological, biochemical, genetic and
   perhaps viral reasons, making diagnosis and treatment
   difficult. Mental illnesses include: neurosis-- a functional
   disorder that can be in the form of anxiety, reactive
   depression, hysteria and obsession which arises as a result
   of stress and anxieties in the individual's environment;
   psychosis--    a mental illness arising in the mind itself (as
   opposed to neurosis in which the mind is affected by factors
   in the environment) which is so severe that it involves loss
   of contact with reality; and schizophrenia (see term for
   definition).


For more information contact the local Office of Mental Health,
Psychiatric Center, or :


		New York State Office of Mental Health
		44 Holland Avenue
		Albany, New York 12229
		(518) 474-6567
		(518) 447-9650  Capital District Regional Office
		(315) 428-4542  Central New York Regional Office
		(914) 452-1540  Hudson River Regional Office
		(516) 434-5311  Long Island Regional Office
		(718) 262-4981  New York City Regional Office
		(716) 885-5014  Western New York Regional Office
		
		Alliance for the Mentally Ill of New York State
		P.O. Box 746
		New Paltz, New York 12561
		(914) 255-5134
		(212) 242-7988
		
		Mental Health Association in New York State, Inc.
		75 New Scotland Avenue
		Albany, New York 12208
		(518) 434-0439
		
		Federation of Parents Organizations for the
		New York State Mental Institutions, Inc.
		2175 Wantagh Avenue
		Wantagh, New York 11793
		
		The Alliance of People With Psychiatric Labels
		826 Euclid Avenue
		Syracuse, New York 13210
		(315) 475-4120
		
		
Mental Retardation


   This term refers to subaverage general intellectual functioning (as
   defined by various tests which measure intelligence) in, or
   associated with, impairments in adaptive behavior (adjustment to
   everyday life), and manifested during the developmental period (
   birth to age 22). Persons with mental retardation are those who
   mature at a below average rate, and experience unusual difficulty in
   learning and social adjustment. Difficulties may occur in learning
   communication, social, academic, and vocational skills. The amount
   of difficulty experienced depends upon the person's age, mental
   ability, and developmental stage. Persons who are Mildly retarded
   are in many respects quite similar to their typical peers. While
   still young their retardation is not readily apparent. Persons who
   are Moderately retarded are more obviously handicapped, and their
   retardation is usually apparent before school age. Persons Severely
   or profoundly retarded have obvious intellectual impairments and
   frequently have other handicaps such as cerebral palsy, epilepsy,
   blindness, or deafness. Mental retardation is not a disease, and
   although there are more than 250 specific identified causes, in most
   cases, the exact reason is unknown. 


For more specific information contact: 


		New York State Association for Retarded Children, Inc.
		393 Delaware Avenue
		Delmar, New York 12054
		(518) 439-8311
		
		New York State Office of Mental Retardation & 
		Developmental Disabilities (OMRDD)
		44 Holland Avenue 
		Albany, New York 12229
		(518) 474-6601
		
		Commission on Quality of Care for the Mentally Disabled 
		99 Washington Avenue 10th Floor 
		Albany, New York 12210 
		(518) 473-7378
		
		Mental Retardation Institute
		Saint Jude Habilitation Institute
		Institutes of Applied Human Dynamics
		26 Legion Drive
		Valhalla, New York 10594
		(914) 948-3080
		
		National Association for Retarded Citizens/US
		P. O. Box 6109
		2501 Avenue J
		Arlington, Texas 76011


		President's Committee on Mental Retardation
		U. S. Department of Health & Human Services
		Office of Human Development Services
		Wilbert J. Cohen Federal Building, Room 4723
		330 Independence Avenue, S. W.
		Washington, D. C. 20201
		(202) 745-7634
		
		
Metabolism


   The process by which the body takes the food we eat and breaks it
   down into elements and compounds that the cells can use to build and
   repair tissue, for growth, and to produce energy. 


Mitchell-Lama Housing


   Initiated in 1955 under New York State Private Housing Finance Law,
   Article 2, this program was created to stimulate the construction of
   apartment housing for middle-income families, often including
   persons who are elderly and/or handicapped, who were considered most
   disadvantaged by the housing shortage at that time. (A State public
   housing program for those of low-income existed since the 1920's.)
   The objective was that the rental income from Mitchell-Lama housing
   units would be sufficient to maintain them and provide payment of
   bond debts (money that was loaned by the State and New York City to
   private developers for Mitchell Lama construction). For more
   information, contact the regional office of the New York State
   Division of Housing and Community Renewal. 


Model Project or Demonstration Project


   A general term for a demonstration program funded for a limited
   period of time. Such projects can be on a statewide, regional or
   local level. 


Multiple Handicap


   Generally, this term refers to a person with two or more
   disabilities. In relation to education, " multiple handicapped"
   refers to a pupil with two or more handicapping conditions that
   result in multisensory or motor deficiencies and developmental lags
   in the cognitive, affective, or psychomotor areas, the combination
   of which cause educational problems that cannot be accommodated in a
   special education program solely for one of the impairments. 


Multiple Sclerosis (MS)


   Multiple Sclerosis (meaning many scars) is a disease that affects
   the brain and the spinal cord. The brain sends messages through the
   spinal cord to the muscles throughout the body to tell the body what
   to do. When a person has MS, the covering (myelin) that protects the
   nerves in the brain and the spinal cord is scarred so that the
   message cannot always get through. Symptoms of MS vary greatly
   depending upon where the sclerosed patches are formed in the central
   nervous system, and might include eye trouble, speech problems,
   partial or complete paralysis of any part of the body, tingling
   sensation, poor coordination, unusual fatigue, and loss of bladder
   and bowel control. 


For more information, contact : 


		Multiple Sclerosis Capital District Chapter 
		421 New Karner Road
		Albany, New York 
		(518) 452-1631
		
		National Multiple Sclerosis Society
		205 East 42nd Street
		New York, New York 10017
		(212) 986-3240



Muscular Dystrophy


   This term is used to designate a group of muscle-destroying
   disorders which vary in hereditary pattern, age of onset, initial
   muscles attacked, and rate of progression. These disorders include,
   but are not limited to : 


   Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)-- one of the most common and
   rapidly progressive forms of muscular dystrophy (a wasting away
   of the muscle tissue) which develops early, usually between ages
   2 and 6, in the large muscles of the lower trunk and upper legs,
   and results in difficulty in walking and raising the arms above
   the head; 


   Facio-Scapulo Humeral Dystrophy-- a disease of slow progression,
   usually evident in the teen years, which begins in the muscles
   of the face (facio), shoulder (scapulo), and arms (humeral) and
   may sometimes result in involvement of the trunk and leg
   muscles; and, 


   Myotonic Dystrophy-- a disease which usually affects adults that
   is characterized by progressive weakness (dystrophy) and
   inability to relax muscles after contraction (myotonia) and
   which may include cataracts, diabetes (see term for definition),
   and personality changes. 


For more information, contact :


		Muscular Dystrophy Association 
		810 Seventh Avenue 
		New York, New York 10019 
		(212) 586-0808
		
		
Myasthenia Gravis


   A chronic neuromuscular disease (see term for definition)
   characterized by intermittent muscular weakness of variable degree
   and duration. It can begin at any age, but most often appears among
   women in their 20's and men over 40. Any muscles may be affected.
   Initially, those most commonly involved are muscles of eye movement,
   facial expression, and eyelid elevation. In mild cases, weakness may
   be limited to these muscles, and function is regained after rest. In
   more severe cases, the disease may later affect muscles of the limbs
   and of respiration, chewing and swallowing; strength may not improve
   even with prolonged rest.


For more information, contact :


		The Myasthenia Gravis Foundation, Inc. 
		Empire State Chapter 61
		Gramercy Park North 
		New York, New York 10010 
		(212) 533-7005
		
		The Myasthenia Gravis Foundation National Office 
		7-11 South Broadway 
		White Plains, New York 10601 
		(212) 328-1717
		
		







MOST POPULAR DOCUMENTS:   ADA Accessibility Guidelines | Disabled Students in Higher Education | Caregiver Stress: Causes & Treatment | History of Disabilities and Social Problems | Disability Statistics | Using Knowledge and Technology
This site is maintained by Jennifer Weir, Disability Services at Texas A&M University -- Corpus Christi