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   Paralysis of all four limbs, caused by traumatic injury or disease
   to the nerve cells of the spinal column in the neck. The most common
   causes of injury are diving accidents, falls, traffic accidents (
   where the head is thrown forward following deceleration of the body)
   and war injuries. 

Randolph-Sheppard Act

   The New York State Commission for the Blind and Visually Handicapped
   (CBVH) administers the Federally initiated Randolph-Sheppard
   Program which was enacted in 1936, and later amended to establish a
   priority for persons who are blind to operate vending facilities
   such as newsstands, snack bars, cafeterias and vending machines on
   Federal property. 

   New York State Finance Law (Section 161-a, paragraph 3[a]) extends
   this Program on the State level by enabling the Commissioner of
   General Services to lease space in any public building or other
   premises under his jurisdiction for the operation of vending stands
   for the sale of newspapers, periodicals, confections, tobacco
   products and such articles approved by the Commissioner. In order to
   provide people with visual disabilities with remunerative employment
   and stimulate independence, the Commissioner may give preference to
   blind vendors through the provision of permits to the Commission for
   the Blind and Visually Handicapped of the State Department of Social

For more information, contact : 

		Commission for the Blind and Visually Handicapped 
		New York State Department of Social Services 
		40 North Pearl Street 
		Albany, New York 12243 
		(518) 473-1801

Reasonable Accommodation

   A term which currently has no universally accepted legal definition,
   but which refers to adaptations made (particularly in the workplace)
   to enable a person with disabilities to more easily utilize
   equipment and materials. The " reasonable" aspect is that special
   equipment, physical alterations, or environmental adjustments would
   be cost-effective, and requests for such would be tempered with the
   realization that the determination of the accommodations needed may
   require compromise between the requester and the provider.
   Reasonable accommodations could range from a ramp to an extended
   pointer to enable someone (i.e. a person who is quadriplegic) who
   uses his/her teeth to hold such an implement to have access to a
   typewriter or computer; from a Braille writer or voice synthesizer
   which translates printed symbols to voice for use by a person who is
   visually impaired, to more technical adaptations as needed to enable
   people with disabilities to pursue their chosen interests, including
   satisfying employment. 

(See Workers With Disabilities Program.) 

Recording for the Blind

   Recording for the Blind is a private, nonprofit service organization
   which lends recorded educational books to individuals who cannot
   read standard printed material. Services are available to persons
   with a verified visual, physical or specific learning disability
   which substantially limits reading. A " specific learning
   disability" does not include learning problems which are primarily
   the result of visual, hearing or motor handicaps; mental
   retardation; emotional disturbance or environmental, cultural or
   economic disadvantage. Schools and agencies are not eligible for the
   service, but may submit applications and orders on behalf of their
   students or clients. 

For more information, contact : 

		Recording for the Blind
		The Anne T. MacDonald Center
		20 Roszel Road
		Princeton, New Jersey 08540
		(609) 452-0606


   A term used to denote the act of directing an individual to the
   appropriate agency for service. 


   A planned program in which a person with a disability progresses
   towards or maintains the optimum degree of mental, physical, and
   emotional independence of which he / she is capable. In relation to
   disability, "rehabilitation" can refer to many areas including
   vocational rehabilitation--job skills or post-secondary school
   training towards the attainment of gainful employment; and physical
   rehabilitation-- treatment to restore or maintain mobility, muscle
   tone, etc. by physical and mechanical means such as massage,
   regulated exercise, water, light, heat and electricity. 

For further information, contact : 

		New York Association for Rehabilitation Facilities
		155 Washington Avenue
		3rd Floor
		Albany, New York 12210
		(518) 449-2976
		Rehabilitation International 
		The International Society for Rehabilitation of the Disabled 
		432 Park Avenue South 
		New York, New York 10016 
		(212) 420-1500
		National Rehabilitation Association
		1522 K Street, N. W.
		Washington, D. C. 20005
		Sister Kenny Institute
		Chicago Avenue at 27th Street
		Minneapolis, Minnesota 55407
		(612) 863-4457


   A period during which disease symptoms are gone or reduced. 

Respite Services

   The provision of intermittent temporary substitute care for the
   purpose of providing relief to the parent, guardian or caregiver for
   a person with disabilities who has remained in the home. Respite
   care enables the caregiver to maintain the person in the home, while
   r educing the burden of continual care. Among the services which
   could be provided are: supervision , personal care (i. e. feeding
   , bathing), recreation , day programming and medical care. Respite
   care can range from a brief length of time (under 24 hours) to a few
   weeks, depending upon circumstances, and can take place in a variety
   of settings, including : 

   in-home care-- care in the home of the person; provider home
   care--provided in the home of the person caring for the person
   temporarily; community residence respite-- overnight or daytime
   short-term care provided in a certified community residence
   which is either State or agency operated; free-standing respite-
   - a home or apartment specifically established and funded to
   provide respite services as its primary function ; and,
   developmental center respite-- overnight or short-term care in
   beds set aside by the center for community use. 

For more information, contact :

		New York State Office of Mental Health (OMH) 
		44 Holland Avenue 
		Albany, New York 12229 
		(518) 474-0122
		New York State Office of Mental Retardation and 
		Developmental Disabilities (OMRDD) 
		44 Holland Avenue 
		Albany, New York 12229
		(518) 473-6062

   A psychiatric diagnosis of disturbance characterized by
   disorganization of an individual's personality, often resulting in
   life long episodes of ill-health and hospitalization. Onset is
   commonly in youth or early adult life, and can be either sudden or
   develop so gradually that it is well established before becoming
   apparent. Characteristics of this illness can include hearing
   voices, hallucinations, talking to oneself, and loss of ability to
   solve the problems of everyday living. Schizophrenia is not a "
   split personality" but a disorder, whose cause is uncertain, which
   destroys rational thought. 

For more information, contact : 

		New York State Office of Mental Health (OMH)
		44 Holland Avenue
		Albany, New York 12229
		(518) 474-5661
		Alliance for the Mentally Ill of New York State 
		P. O. Box 746
		New Paltz, New York 12561 
		(914) 292-3482 
		(914) 255-5134 
		(212) 719-2484
		Mental Health Association in New York State, Inc. 
		75 New Scotland Avenue 
		Albany, New York 12208 
		(518) 474-2568
		National Alliance for the Mentally Ill
		Department P
		1901 North Fort Myer Drive
		Suite 500
		Arlington, Virginia 22209
		(703) 524-7600
		Schizophrenia Research Branch
		National Institute of Mental Health
		5600 Fishers Lane
		Rockville, Maryland 20857
		(301) 443-4515
		The Alliance of People With Psychiatric Labels 
		826 Euclid Avenue
		Syracuse, New York 13210 
		(315) 475-4120


   Scoliosis is the medical term for lateral, or side-to-side curvature
   of the spine. Normally, the spine curves slightly from front to
   back, but has no sideways curvature and appears perfectly straight
   when viewed from the back. In the person with scoliosis the spine
   also curves from side to side. It can be so mild that the curvature
   is hardly visible, or so severe that the spine begins to look like
   the letter S. 

For further information, contact : 

		New York State Easter Seal Society 
		107 Washington Avenue 
		Albany, New York 
		(518) 438-8785
Second Injury Law (State Mandate)

   In an effort to preclude employer discrimination against persons who
   are disabled, Section 15-8 of the Worker's Compensation Law was
   enacted over forty years ago. This provision established conditions
   limiting an employer's workers' compensation liability should an
   employee who is disabled become injured on the job, and created the
   Special Disability Fund. More commonly known as the " Second Injury
   Fund, " this money is used to reimburse an employer or his/her
   insurance carrier for all medical expenses and compensation for
   permanent disability, or death, after the first 104 weeks following
   the accident or death depending on certain specific criteria. 

For more information, contact the district Board Office of Workers '
Compensation or: 

		New York State Workers' Compensation Board 
		180 Livingston Street
		Brooklyn, New York 11248 
		(718) 802-6600
		New York State Workers' Compensation Board
		100 Broadway
		Menands, New York 12241
		(518) 474-2121

Sections 55-a, 55-b and 55-c (State and Municipal Civil Service Laws)

 Section 55-a and 55-b

   In recent years, legislative action has led to increased employment
   opportunities for persons who are disabled, particularly in the
   public sector. The classification of certain state and municipal
   Civil Service positions as non-competitive (no examination
   required), to be filled by qualified persons who are disabled, is
   permitted under the Civil Service law. During the 1985 session, both
   houses approved a measure that clarified the provisions for
   municipal employment by consolidating a measure that clarified the
   provisions for municipal employment by consolidating Section 55-a
   (for persons who are mentally retarded) and Section 55-b (persons
   who are physically handicapped) into a single program for persons
   who are disabled. This law also increased the number of existing
   positions from 400 to 700 and permits all persons who are mentally
   disabled to participate. 

   This organization of the municipal law is similar to the state-run
   program, the latter of which allocates 900 positions in the non
   competitive class.

   Lawmakers, during the 1987 session, approved a measure that allows
   the Department of Civil Service to accept a high school diploma
   based upon the successful completion of the Individualized Education
   Plan (IEP) as fulfillment of the high school diploma requirement
   whenever attainment of such a diploma is the minimum requirement for
   taking a competitive examination.

 Section 55-c

   This is a new section (1987) which empowers the Department of
   Civil Service to allocate up to 300 positions with duties such as
   can be performed by veterans who are physically or mentally disabled
   who are found to be otherwise qualified to perform satisfactorily,
   the duties of any such position. These positions must be classified
   in the non-competitive class and may be filled only by veterans of
   the U. S. Armed Forces who served during time of war and who have
   been certified by the Employee Health Service of the Department of
   Civil Service as being either physically or mentally handicapped,
   but capable of performing the duties of such positions. Specifies
   that the number of veterans thus appointed, not exceed 300 and that
   such veterans be afforded the same opportunity to take promotional
   examinations as provided to employees in the competitive class. 

For further information, contact your local Office of Vocational
Rehabilitation, Civil Service Office, or : 

		New York State Department of Civil Service 
		Civil Service Building 
		State Office Campus 
		Washington Avenue 
		Albany, New York 12239 
		(518) 457-9392


   A brief, temporary change in the normal functioning of the brain's
   electrical system (which relays messages to and from the brain and
   body components) causing a more than usual amount of electrical
   energy to pass between cells. This sudden overload may be localized
   in the brain, or it may take over the whole system. The results can
   range from a few seconds of loss of consciousness, to a generalized
   convulsive seizure effecting the whole body (the person becomes
   unconscious and falls, the body stiffens, the muscles begin
   alternate periods of spasm and relaxation). For further information
   see " Epilepsy". 

Selective Placement Programs (Federal and State)

   FEDERAL:  The federal government has established Selective Placement
   Programs to affect the implementation of law, and executive branch
   policy, on the hiring, placement and advancement of persons who are
   handicapped, veterans who are disabled, and rehabilitated offenders.

   The Office of Vocational Rehabilitation and the Veterans'
   Administration are responsible for certifying these persons or a
   person who is disabled with a vocational handicap. This certification
   exempts the individual from the examination for eligibility process,
   but the person must still meet minimum qualifications in education and
   work experience.

   Assistance is available from the Federal Office of Personnel
   Management (OPM) for those individuals who cannot find employment
   through the same competitive procedures as those who are not disabled
   (i.e. special examination accommodations for applicants whose
   disability precludes equal competition, readers' tapes and large print
   for the sight impaired, interpreters, Braille and waiving certain
   verbal tests for persons who are hearing disabled, and allowing
   additional time for those with coordination disabilities).

   Agency coordinators for the employment of individuals who are
   handicapped also assist in competitive employment procedures by
   providing the following: technical advice and assistance to
   supervisors on placement, job site modifications, job redesign and
   supplementary devices; and, advice on accessibility to the work site
   or job modification where needed (i.e. ramped entrances, accessible
   rest rooms, specially designed office equipment and furniture, and
   designated parking.)

       700-Hour Program: to assist these individuals who have been unable to
       get a job despite examination modification, the Office of Personnel
       Management (OPM) has established a trial appointment program, or what
       is commonly known as the "700-Hour Program." This is a temporary, not
       to exceed 700 hours, trial appointment. The agency does not guarantee 
       permanent employment ; however, the temporary appointment, which lasts 
       approximately four months, is often long enough for the person to 
       establish his / her job readiness. 

   STATE : The State Selective Placement Program, a service provided by the
   Job Service Division (JSD) of the New York State Department of Labor,
   has been rendering job placement and employability services to
   applicants with disabilities for over forty years. Approximately one
   hundred offices located statewide, provide services which include the
   following: employability and assessment planning, job counseling
   (individual and group), referral to ancillary services (i. e.
   vocational rehabilitation, medical and social services) and, aptitude
   and proficiency testing. Job Service's main objective is to place the
   qualified job seeker at the higher level of skill in a variety of jobs.
   To meet that objective, additional services such as assistance in
   restructuring tests to accommodate individuals, and information and
   consultation to employers and agencies regarding reasonable
   accommodation (see term for definition), job restructuring, and
   affirmative action (see term for definition) are also available. 

   Referrals to Job Service come from a variety of sources including the
   Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, the Division of Substance Abuse
   Services, private and public rehabilitation programs, mental health
   facilities, schools, hospitals, clinics, and walk-ins. Those who are
   job-ready are served by placement interviewers; others are served by
   employment counselors. 

For more information, contact : 

		Office of Personnel Management
		(202) 653-8468
		State Selective Service Program
		Job Service Division
		115 Ontario Street
		Albany, New York 12206
		(518) 465-0797

Senate Select Committee on the Disabled

   A Committee established by the New York State Senate in 1981, to
   seek out and resolve problems which consistently frustrate
   individuals who are disabled, their families and friends, service
   providers, and professionals in the field of disability in their
   efforts to achieve unqualified access to all aspects of life
   including education, job training, employment, housing, and
   transportation. The Committee functions as an advocate legislatively
   and on a person-by-person basis, and has established open lines of
   communication by holding public hearings, encouraging personal
   contact with the Committee, establishing Advisory Boards and
   publishing numerous pertinent reports and informational newsletters.

For more information, contact : 

		Senate Select Committee on the Disabled
		Legislative Office Building
		Albany, New York 12247
		(518) 455-2096
		(518) 436-3597 (TDD)

Sheltered Employment Program (SEP)

   Established by the State Legislature under Section 1004-A of the
   Education Law, the Sheltered Employment Program (SEP) is a
   separately funded State Education Department program administered by
   the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation (OVR) which provides
   funding for training and work opportunities for individuals who, are

More information can be obtain from: 

		Office of Vocational Rehabilitation
		New York State Education Department
		Albany, New York 12234
		(518) 474-5651
Sheltered Workshop

   A term commonly associated with a facility offering a recognized
   program of vocational rehabilitation for persons with disabilities.
   The rehabilitation is accomplished through paid and unpaid
   employment in the workshop, competitive employment in the community,
   and sometimes by using therapeutic programs like Work Activities or
   Work Adjustment Training (programs designed to enhance or hone an
   individual's basic work skills and ability to interact in a work
   situation with peers and management). The workshop serves clients
   who are independent in basic social situations, and are productive
   in a work setting. (See " Sheltered Employment Program" for more

For more information, contact : 

		New York State Association of Rehabilitation Facilities
		155 Washington Avenue, Suite 305
		Albany, New York 12210
		(518) 449-2976
Shriners Hospital for Crippled Children

   Shriners Hospitals are a network of ten (10) orthopedic hospitals
   and three (3) burn institutes, maintained and operated by the
   Shrine where children under the age of 18 receive medical care, free
   of charge. 

For more information, contact : 

		Shriners Hospitals for Crippled Children 
		P. O. Box 25356 
		Tampa, Florida 33622 
		(800) 237-5055 
Sibling Information Network

   The Sibling Information Network was formed to serve as a bridge for
   sharing ideas, programs, research, or needs regarding siblings and
   families of persons with disabilities. The Network publishes a
   quarterly newsletter. 

For more information, contact : 

		Sibling Information Network
		Department of Educational Psychology
		Box U-67, The University of Connecticut
		Storrs, Connecticut 06268
		(203) 486-4034

Sickle Cell Anemia (Sickle Cell Disease)

   A chronic, inherited anemia (a condition in which the blood is
   deficient in red blood cells which carry oxygen to the tissues of
   the body and are responsible for the red color of blood) in which a
   large proportion of the red blood cells tend to sickle (change from
   the normal round shape to a crescent shape). Sickling can cause
   blockage of circulation to parts of the body including organs,
   bones, joints and the skin. Individuals with Sickle Cell Disease can
   also have unpredictable periods of severe pain in joints, the
   abdomen, spine and other parts of the body ; pneumonia ; bone
   infections ; and jaundice, which may require hospitalization. 

For further information, contact: 

		New York State Department of Health
		Empire State Plaza
		Corning Tower
		Albany, New York 12237
		(518) 474-5422
		National Association for Sickle Cell Disease
		Rochester-Finger Lakes Chapter
		480 Genesee Street
		Rochester, New York 14611
		(716) 436-3040
		Niagara Frontier Association for Sickle Cell Disease, Inc.
		2211 Main Street, Building B
		Buffalo, New York 14214
		(716) 832-3044
		Comprehensive Sickle Cell Center
		Harlem Hospital Center
		506 Lenox Avenue, Suite 6146
		New York, New York 1003 7
		(212) 491-8074
		Veterans Administration Sickle Cell
		Screening and Education Program 
		c/o VA Extended Care Center 
		179 Street and Linden Boulevard St. 
		Albany, New York 11425 
		(718) 526-1000 Ext. 415

Sign Language

   A way of communicating words, ideas and feelings using one's body,
   hands, arms and face. There are many forms of sign language which

   American Sign Language (ASL)-- a visual-gestural
   (movement of body and/or limbs) language with vocabulary and grammar
   different from standard English ; 

   Signing Exact English (SEE) -- a system, which is  a
   grammatical and word-for-word method than other forms of sign language,
   that was devised to help hearing impaired children primarily in an
   educational setting to learn standard English (i. e. usage and
   sentence structure) for reading, writing and self-expression; and, 
   Fingerspelling-- the use of 26 different handshapes to
   represent the letters of the alphabet to spell out words.

               For more information, contact :

		Interpreter Referral Service
		6 Automation Lane
		Albany, New York 12205
		(518) 459-6535 (TTY/Voice)
		New York Interpreters for the Deaf, Inc.
		80 Fifth Avenue
		New York, New York 10011
		(212) 929-4444 (TTY/Voice)

Site Selection

   Effective September 1, 1978, a "site selection law"
   mandated that before a sponsoring agency can establish a community
   residence for persons who are mentally retarded, it must notify the
   municipality in which the facility is to be located. The municipality
   has 40 days to approve or object to a suggested site. If the
   municipality and the sponsoring agency cannot agree on where or if a
   community residence should be established, either may request a hearing
   before the Commissioner, or his designee, of the Office of Mental
   Retardation and Developmental Disabilities. In making his I her
   decision, the Commissioner must consider the need for such facilities in
   the municipality, the existing concentration of these facilities, and
   whether the establishment of the proposed community residence would
   substantially alter the nature and character of the area. 

For more information, contact : 

		New York State Office of Mental Retardation & 
		Developmental Disabilities 
		44 Holland Avenue 
		Albany, New York 12229 
		(518) 473-6062
Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF)

   A facility or distinct part of an institution (e.g. hospital or
   nursing home), that is licensed to provide inpatient care for
   persons requiring skilled nursing services for a chronic disease or
   convalescence, over a prolonged period of time. 

For more information, contact your local Department of Health. 

Small Residential Units (SRU's)

   SRU's are small residences which house 12 or less individuals built
   on the perimeter of grounds of developmental centers by the New York
   State Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities.
   They are intended to be free-standing Intermediate Care Facilities
   (ICF's) (see term for definition) built on property closest to
   community boundaries, and residents are to be integrated into
   community-based day services. 

For more information, contact : 

		New York State Office of Mental Retardation & 
		Developmental Disabilities 
		44 Holand Avenue 
		Albany, New York 12229 
		(518) 473-6062

Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI)

   Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) benefits may be paid to
   a worker who is disabled, under age 65 and his/her family when
   earnings are lost or reduced due to the worker's disability. You may
   be considered "disabled" if you have a physical (including visual)
   or mental impairment which (1) prevents you from working, and (2) is
   expected to last for at least 12 months or to result in death; for
   the purpose of SSDI a person is considered "blind" with central
   visual acuity of 20/ 200 or less in the better eye with the use of
   corrective lenses or visual field reduction of 20 degrees or less.
   (See "Visual Impairments" for explanation.) Before a worker and
   his or her family can get benefits, the worker must have credit for
   a certain amount of work under Social Security. The exact amount of
   work credit needed depends on the worker's age. Children 18 or
   older, who were disabled before age 22, also can receive monthly
   benefits when either parent becomes entitled to retirement payments
   or dies after having worked long enough under Social Security. A
   widow or widower who is disabled, or surviving divorced wife age 50
   or older who is disabled, may be eligible for monthly survivors
   payments when a worker dies. For information on the specific
   criteria for eligibility, contact the local Social Security office. 


   Spasticity is the most common type of Cerebral Palsy. It is found in
   about 50 to 60% of cases, mostly with hemiplegia (paralysis of one
   side of the body) or less likely, with quadriplegia (total paralysis
   of the body from the neck down). The muscle tone is increased, and
   there is increased resistance to passive movement. When the muscles
   are stretched, as in attention to movement, there is an increased
   stretch reflect and the muscle contracts strongly, involuntarily and

For more information, contact : 

		United Cerebral Palsy Association of New York State 
		155 Washington Avenue 
		Albany, New York 12210 
		(518) 436-0178
		United Cerebral Palsy Association Of New York
		330 West 34th Street
		New York, New York 10001
		(212) 947-5770

Special Act School District

   A term which refers to public school districts that have been
   created by special acts of the Legislature to effectively meet the
   special educational needs of children in child-care institutions.
   Students in the special districts can be delinquent, emotionally
   disturbed, physically handicapped or neglected. Special act schools
   are similar to standard public schools in that they teach academic
   and occupational skills, social skills, and basic living skills, but
   special act schools can also provide a calm therapeutic setting,
   prepare an unruly or battered youngster for return home or to an
   adoptive family. Services provided can include counseling, guidance,
   medical and psychiatric care. In some districts formal education is
   provided by the nearby local public school. 

For more information, contact : 

		Division of Program Development
		Office for Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions
		New York State Education Department
		1073 Education Building Annex
		Albany, New York 12234
		(518) 474-2251

Special Class

   According to Part 200 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of
   Education (see term for more information) "special class" means a
   class consisting of pupils with the same handicapping conditions or
   with differing handicapping conditions who have been grouped
   together because of similar educational needs for the purpose of
   being provided a special education program. Special education means
   specially designed individualized or group instruction or special
   services or programs as defined in Subdivision 2 of Section 4401 of
   the Education Law provided at no cost to the parent, to meet the
   individual needs of pupils with handicapping conditions. 

For more information, contact : 

		Division of Program Development
		Office for Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions
		New York State Education Department
		1073 Education Building Annex
		Albany, New York 12234
		(518) 474-2251

Special Education and Related Services

   In brief, according to Part 200 of the Regulations of the
   Commissioner of Education (see term for definition) these terms
   are defined as follows: special education-- specially designed
   instruction, at no cost to parents or guardians, to meet the unique
   needs of the child, including classroom instruction, instruction in
   physical education, home instruction in hospitals and institutions;
   and related services-- transportation and a variety of supportive
   services such as speech pathology and audiology, psychological,
   physical and occupational therapy, recreation, medical and others
   which are needed to help the child to benefit from his / her special
   education program. 

For more information, contact : 

		Division of Program Development
		Office for Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions
		New York State Education Department
		1073 Education Building Annex
		Albany, New York 12234
		(518) 474-2251

Special Education Training and Resource Center (SETRC)

   Usually operated by a BOCES (see term for definition) through
   resources, printed materials, and workshop sessions, SETRC provides
   parents, teachers, administrators, Boards of Education members,
   support personnel, agency representatives, and interested
   individuals with information and training on the education of
   children with handicapping conditions. SETRC disseminates
   information on : managing behaviors in school or at home, adapting
   curricula or environments, assessing student's learning styles or
   home teaching techniques, the IEP process, available special
   programs and services, current laws and regulations, and
   understanding disabilities. As well as offering consulting services,
   SETRC develops and presents training on specially designed topics
   based on local needs. Training sessions may be single workshops or
   more intensive long-term programs. The Office for Education of
   Children with Handicapping Conditions administers and supports a
   network of 46 SETRC training centers which are located throughout
   the State in BOCES (see term for definition), in large city school
   districts and in one university. 

For more information, contact : 

		Division of Program Development
		Office for Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions
		New York State Education Department
		1073 Education Building Annex
		Albany, New York 12234
		(518) 474-2251

Special Olympics

   Special Olympics Games consist of competitions in track and field,
   swimming, gymnastics, basketball, volleyball, floor hockey, bowling,
   iceskating, soccer, frisbee disc, winter activities, wheelchair
   events and other sports. Another feature of the games is sports
   clinics in a variety of activities conducted by professional and
   amateur athletes. Local, area, sectional, and state games are
   scheduled throughout the year. State games are for Special Olympians
   who have qualified through local and area meets. Eligible
   participants are those individuals (8 and older) who have been
   assigned to programs for the persons who are mentally handicapped.
   Volunteers provide the manpower for Special Olympics. They come from
   schools, colleges, service clubs, parents ' groups, youth agencies,
   sports officials, coaches' organizations and professional groups in
   education, special education, physical education and recreation. 

For further information, contact :

		New York Special Olympics 
		O. D. Heck Developmental Center
		Balltown and Consaul Roads 
		Schenectady, New York 12304 
		New York Special Olympics 
		220 East 42nd Street, Room 1135 
		New York, New York 10017 
		(212) 661-1410
Special Recreation, Inc.

   Special Recreation, Inc. is a national, non-profit organization
   which supports and promotes self-determination in recreation for
   people with disabilities. 

For more information, contact : 

		Special Recreation, Inc. 
		362 Koser Avenue 
		Iowa City, Iowa 52240

Speech-Language Pathology

   Speech language pathologists are concerned with the assessment and
   treatment of speech and language disorders in children and adults.
   They are best qualified to offer assistance to persons with
   communicative disorders. Services provided by speech-language
   pathologists include: 

   Preventing, evaluating and treating disorders of verbal and
   written language, articulation, voice, fluency, mastication,
   deglutition, cognition/communication, auditory and/or visual
   processing and memory, and interactive communication.
   Determining the need for augmentative communication systems (
   sign language, gesture systems, communication boards, electronic
   automated devices, mechanical devices) ; selecting and
   developing the most effective and functional communication
   system ; and, providing training in maximal utilization of the
   system selected. 

   Speech disorders include, but are not limited to, difficulty with
   articulation, e. g. disturbances of vocal quality, pitch, loudness;
   fluency disorders, including stuttering, or other disruptions of
   spoken language, e. g. a disruption in the fluency of verbal
   expression which occur frequently or are marked in character and are
   not readily controllable. 

   Speech disorders may reflect developmental delays or deficits,
   neuropathologies of many kinds, and/or reflect difficulties inherent
   in the child or adult's environment. Speech and language problems
   are often found to co-exist together. 

For more information, contact : 

		New York State Speech Language Hearing Association 
		111 Washington Avenue 6th Floor 
		Albany, New York 12210 
		(518) 463-5272
Spina Bifida

   Spina bifida means cleft spine, which is an incomplete closure in
   the spinal column. The three types of spina bifida (from mild to
   severe) are: 

   Spina bifida occulta-- there is an opening in one or more of the
   vertebrae (bones) of the spinal column without damage to the
   spinal cord ; Meningocele-- the meninges, or protective covering
   around the spinal cord, have pushed out through the opening in
   the vertebrae in a sac called the "meningocele, " but the spinal
   cord remains intact; Myelomeningocele-- not only are there
   openings in the vertebrae, but the spinal cord itself does not
   close. It usually protrudes from the back. Most children born
   with an open spine also develop hydrocephalus (see term for
   definition). Another closely associated problem is Arnold-
   Chiari Syndrome, in which part of the lower brain may protrude
   downward into the spinal canal. Many people with spina bifida
   have some additional handicaps such as bladder and bowel
   dysfunction, paralysis of the legs or lack of sensation. 

For further information, contact :

		Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus Association of New York State
		382 Ridge Road 
		Scotia, New York 12302
		March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation
		P. O. Box 2000
		1275 Mamaroneck Avenue
		White Plains, New York 10605
		(914) 428-7100
		Spina Bifida Association of America
		343 South Dearborn Avenue, Suite 317
		Chicago, Illinois 60604
		(312) 663-1562
		(800) 621-3141

State Agencies

   This term refers to governmentally appointed groups (established
   through Executive Order or by the Legislature) who are
   responsible for setting up and / or overseeing the implementation
   of various guidelines, laws, rules, regulations, programs and
   policies which effect the citizens of New York State. These
   include State and Federally mandated processes. Many such entities
   are administered by or provide services on the local or regional
   level, and have their central office located in Albany.
   Centralization also enables them to work with each other to
   coordinate services for people who cannot be helped by one
   specific group. Agencies / Bureaus / Commissions / Departments /
   Divisions / Offices which have impact upon people with
   disabilities include the following (listed below are the central
   addresses - "NYS" indicates New York State; for more information
   contact the local or regional office): 

		Commission for the Blind and Visually Handicapped
		Department of Social Services (DSS)
		40 North Pearl Street
		Albany, New York 12243
		(518) 473-1801
        A vocational rehabilitation services agency, under the jurisdiction
	of DSS, which provides client training for competitive or
	remunerative employment among other services for persons who are
	blind or visually impaired.

		NYS Commission on Quality of Care for the Mentally Disabled
		Suite 1002
		99 Washington Avenue
		Albany, New York 12210
		(518) 473-7378
	A commission charged legislatively with the responsibility of
	ensuring the quality of care of programs serving citizens who are
	mentally retarded and mentally ill, and promoting advocacy
	training for families and consumers.

		NYS Department of Civil Service
		Building 1
		State Office Campus
		Albany, New York 12239
		(518) 457-2487
	Oversees all Civil Service employment, and is responsible for the
	implementation of affirmative action (see term for definition).

		NYS Department of Health
		Empire State Plaza
		Tower Building, Room 1408
		Albany, New York 12237
		(518) 474-5422
	Responsible for statewide health care planning and implementation
	through local and regional health care personnel, facilities, and
	supplementation support services.

		NYS Department of Labor
		Building 12
		State Office Campus
		Albany, new York 12240
		(518) 457-2612
	Oversees and coordinates all aspects of labor matters including
	training, placement, and complying with State and Federal

		NYS Department of Social Services 
		40 North Pearl Street 
		Albany, New York 12243 
		(518) 474-9475
		Oversees and coordinates all components regarding the provision
	of human and social services in the State.

		NYS Developmental Disabilities Planning Council 
		Agency Building 1
		10th Floor 
		Empire State Plaza 
		Albany, New York 12223 
		(518) 474-3655

	Comprised of consumers, leaders of State agencies, and providers
	of services to individuals with developmental disabilities, the
	Council is a planning and advocacy group which reports to the

		NYS Division of Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse 
		194 Washington Avenue
		Albany, New York 12210 
		(518) 474-3377
	The Division plans, develops, coordinates, evaluates and
	regulates the network of alcoholism facilities and programs that
	serve persons who are alcoholics, alcohol abusers, and their

		NYS Division of Human Rights 
		Alfred E. Smith Office Building 
		P.O. Box 7063 25th Floor 
		Albany, New York 12225-0063 
		(518) 474-2705
	Responsible for the continuing enforcement of the many laws
	prohibiting discrimination against New Yorkers in all facets of

		NYS Division of Substance Abuse Services (DSAS) 
		Executive Park, South ] 
		Stuyvesant Plaza 
		Albany, New York 12203 
		(518) 457-4176
	Plans, coordinates, and regulates statewide, the provision of
	services to people who are substance abusers, and their families.

		NYS Education Department (SED)
		Education Building
		Albany, New York 12234
		(518) 474-2121
	Responsible for planning, implementing, regulating, and
	coordinating all educational services on all levels throughout the

		Office of Education for Children with Handicapping Conditions 
		1073 Education Building Annex 
		Albany, New York 12234 
		(518) 474-5548
	Responsible for the planning, development, coordination,
	evaluation, and regulation of all educational and related services
	for children with disabilities. 

		Office of Vocational Rehabilitation (OVR) NYS Education
		Department 99 Washington Avenue 
		Albany, New York 12234 
		(518) 474-2714

	OVR, under the jurisdiction of SED, is the agency most visibly
	responsible for providing and overseeing the vocational
	rehabilitation and job placement of individuals with any disability,
	including deaf and hearing impaired and learning disabled, except
	blindness. (See Commission for the Blind and Visually Handicapped).

		NYS Office of Advocate for the Disabled
		Empire State Plaza
		Agency Building 1, 10th Floor
		Albany, New York 12223
		(518) 473-4538 (voice and TTY)
		(800) 522-4369 (voice and TTY)

	The mission of the Advocate's Office is to help all people who are
	disabled become fully integrated into community life by providing: 
	legal advocacy; citizen/ client advocacy; systems advocacy; and self 
	advocacy training. The office focuses on: information and referral 
	services; development of legislation; community development; 
	production of publications and media material; employment development; 
	and other special projects.
		NYS Office for the Aging
		Empire State Plaza
		Agency Building 2
		Albany, New York 12223
		(518) 474-5731
		(800) 342-9871
	Plans, coordinates and oversees programs and policies for the
		NYS Office of Mental Health (OMH)
		44 Holland Avenue
		Albany, New York 12229
		(518) 474-5661
	Responsible for all aspects of the services that provide
	prevention, diagnosis, care and treatment to those with
	mental health problems, and their families, statewide.

		NYS Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental
		Disabilities (OMRDD)
		44 Holland Avenue
		Albany, New York 12229
		(518) 473-9689

	OMRDD plans, coordinates and regulates programs and services
	for people with developmental disabilities and mental
	retardation statewide, including education, rehabilitation
	and residential services.

State Communities Aid Association (SCAA)

   SCAA acts to develop, protect and improve humane
   policies and programs that foster social well-being in New
   York State. By serving as a public policy analyst and a
   forceful influence on the provision of human services, SCAA
   aids the most vulnerable citizens-- children, persons who are
   elderly, indigent, ill, disabled, and unemployed.

For further information , contact:

		SCAA Headquarters
		105 East 22nd Street
		New York, New York 10010
		(212) 677-0250
State Job Information Hot Line

   A toll-free telephone service established by the State
   Advocate's Office, the State Commission for the Blind and
   Visually Handicapped, the Department of Civil Service, and
   the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation which is available on
   weekdays from 10:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. to provide information
   to people with disabilities currently employed by the State,
   as well as those seeking employment. Access to information
   about State government job opportunities, Civil Service
   examinations, special accommodations, affirmative action and
   programs to hire persons who are disabled can be found by
   calling (800) 522-4369, voice or TTY (see "Telecommunications 
   Devices for the Deaf" for an explanation). 

State-Operated and State-Supported Schools

   State-operated and state-supported schools provide services to
   children who are blind, deaf and severely physically handicapped,
   beginning at age three. Day programs are available to eligible
   students, although some facilities may offer a residential program.
   Residential appointments are considered only when travel
   arrangements preclude attendance on a day basis, or when the
   student's educational needs warrant a residential setting. Parents
   must initiate an application to the Commissioner of Education
   supported by adequate written evidence of the child's handicapping
   condition. After review of the application, the Commissioner will
   direct the parents to make arrangements for an evaluation at one of
   the State-operated or State-supported schools. The school will
   evaluate the child's eligibility for its program and notify the
   parents and the Commissioner of the results of the evaluation and
   recommend appointment, if appropriate. 

For more information, contact : 

		Office of Education for Children with Handicapping Conditions
		1073 Education Building Annex
		Albany, New York 12234
		(518) 474-5548

   Stuttering is a speech disorder characterized by interruptions in
   the flow of speech. These disruptions in fluency present themselves
   primarily as repetitions, prolongations, hesitations, or blocks on
   the individual sound or word level. Although the exact cause of
   stuttering is unknown, current theories suggest organic, functional,
   and I or behavioral (causative) factors. Therapy and treatment of
   stuttering is conducted by a certified speech-language pathologist (
   see "Speech-Language Pathology" for definition).

For more information, contact :

		New York State Speech-Language-Hearing Association 
		111 Washington Avenue 
		Albany, New York 12210 
		(518) 463-5272
		National Center for Stuttering
		200 East 33rd Street
		New York, New York 10016
		(800) 221-2483 or
		(212) 532-1460
Sunshine Foundation

An organization founded in Philadelphia in 1976 with Chapters
nationwide, whose purpose is to grant children who are chronically
ill, their dreams. For example, a boy with progeria (a disease
that causes children to age about 10 years for each year of their
chronological age, which causes them to have symptoms such as
arthritis, brittle bones, aged skin, and respiratory problems) and
his family were sent to Disneyland by the Foundation.

For more information, contact :

		The Sunshine Foundation
		4010 Levick Street
		Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19135
		(215) 335-2622
Supplemental Security Income (SSI)

   Supplemental security income (SSI) makes monthly payments to
   persons who are aged, disabled, and / or blind who have limited
   income and resources (assets). To receive SSI payments on the basis
   of disability or blindness, you must meet the social security
   definition of " disabled" or "blind". You do not need any social
   security work credits to get SSI payments (see " Social Security
   Disability Insurance" for comparison). People may be eligible for
   SSI even if they have never worked. And, people who get SSI checks
   can also get Social Security checks, if they are eligible for both.
   Children who are disabled may qualify for SSI payments. To be
   eligible for SSI, you must have limited income and resources, be a
   resident of the U. S. or Northern Mariana Islands, and be either a
   U.S. citizen or a lawfully admitted immigrant. 

For more information, contact the local Social Services Department or: 

		New York State Department of Social Services
		40 North Pearl Street
		Albany, New York 12243
		(518) 473-8839

Supported Work

   Supported work is the latest alternative in the service delivery
   system for persons with head injury, developmental disabilities
   (including those who are learning disabled, mentally retarded or
   mentally ill) which allows individuals to be employed in competitive
   work regardless of the level of disability, work history or previous
   work setting. 

   Such competitive employment must take place in an integrated
   setting, that is, in an environment where non - disabled persons are
   employed. In addition, the work must be done on at least a twenty
   hour per week basis, for which the person is compensated in
   accordance with the federal fair labor standards act. 

   In addition, appropriate support services must be available and they
   should include, but not be limited to, job site vocational
   evaluations, training, vocational rehabilitation counseling and job
   coach intervention and other necessary on-going support services to
   ensure that the individual is able to maintain his I her employment.
   These support services must be provided without any time limit. 

For more information, contact :
		NYS Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities
		44 Holland Avenue
		Albany, New York 12229
		(518) 473-9689

		NYS Office of Mental Health
		44 Holland Avenue
		Albany, New York 12229
		(518) 474-5661
		NYS Office of Vocational Rehabilitation 
		State Education Department 
		Albany, New York 12234 
		(518) 474-2714
		NYS Commission for the Blind and
		Visually Handicapped
		NYS Department of Social Services
		99 Washington Avenue
		Albany, New York 12243
		(518) 473-1801
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