CODI: Cornucopia of Disability Information

ACCESSIBLE ELEMENTS AND SPACES: SCOPE AND TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS

<- 3. Miscellaneous Instructions

4.  ACCESSIBLE ELEMENTS AND SPACES: SCOPE AND TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS.

4.1 Minimum Requirements

4.1.1* Application.

  (1) General.  All areas of newly designed or newly constructed buildings and
facilities required to be accessible by 4.1.2 and 4.1.3 and altered portions
of existing buildings and facilities required to be accessible by 4.1.6 shall
comply with these guidelines, 4.1 through 4.35, unless otherwise provided in
this section or as modified in a special application section.

  (2) Application Based on Building Use.  Special application sections 5
through 10 provide additional requirements for restaurants and cafeterias,
medical care facilities, business and mercantile, libraries, accessible
transient lodging, and transportation facilities.  When a building or facility
contains more than one use covered by a special application section, each
portion shall comply with the requirements for that use.

  (3)* Areas Used Only by Employees as Work Areas.  Areas that are used only
as work areas shall be designed and constructed so that individuals with
disabilities can approach, enter, and exit the areas.  These guidelines do not
require that any areas used only as work areas be constructed to permit
maneuvering within the work area or be constructed or equipped (i.e., with
racks or shelves) to be accessible.

  (4) Temporary Structures.  These guidelines cover temporary buildings or
facilities as well as permanent facilities.  Temporary buildings and
facilities are not of permanent construction but are extensively used or are
essential for public use for a period of time.  Examples of temporary
buildings or facilities covered by these guidelines include, but are not
limited to: reviewing stands, temporary classrooms, bleacher areas, exhibit
areas, temporary banking facilities, temporary health screening services, or
temporary safe pedestrian passageways around a construction site.  Structures,
sites and equipment directly associated with the actual processes of
construction, such as scaffolding, bridging, materials hoists, or construction
trailers are not included.

  (5) General Exceptions.

   (a) In new construction, a person or entity is not required to meet fully
the requirements of these guidelines where that person or entity can
demonstrate that it is structurally impracticable to do so.  Full compliance
will be considered structurally impracticable only in those rare circumstances
when the unique characteristics of terrain prevent the incorporation of
accessibility features.  If full compliance with the requirements of these
guidelines is structurally impracticable, a person or entity shall comply with
the requirements to the extent it is not structurally impracticable.  Any
portion of the building or facility which can be made accessible shall comply
to the extent that it is not structurally impracticable.  (b) Accessibility is
not required to (i) observation galleries used primarily for security
purposes; or (ii) in non-occupiable spaces accessed only by ladders, catwalks,
crawl spaces, very narrow passageways, or freight (non-passenger) elevators,
and frequented only by service personnel for repair purposes; such spaces
include, but are not limited to, elevator pits, elevator penthouses, piping or
equipment catwalks.

4.1.2 Accessible Sites and Exterior Facilities: New Construction.  An
accessible site shall meet the following minimum requirements:

  (1) At least one accessible route complying with 4.3 shall be provided
within the boundary of the site from public transportation stops, accessible
parking spaces, passenger loading zones if provided, and public streets or
sidewalks, to an accessible building entrance.

  (2) At least one accessible route complying with 4.3 shall connect
accessible buildings, accessible facilities, accessible elements, and
accessible spaces that are on the same site.

  (3) All objects that protrude from surfaces or posts into circulation paths
shall comply with 4.4.

  (4) Ground surfaces along accessible routes and in accessible spaces shall
comply with 4.5.

  (5) (a) If parking spaces are provided for self-parking by employees or
visitors, or both, then accessible spaces complying with 4.6 shall be provided
in each such parking area in conformance with the table below.  Spaces
required by the table need not be provided in the particular lot.  They may be
provided in a different location if equivalent or greater accessibility, in
terms of distance from an accessible entrance, cost and convenience is
ensured.

TOTAL PARKING IN LOT REQUIRED MINIMUM NUMBER OF ACCESSIBLE SPACES

1 to 25       1
26 to 50      2
51 to 75      3
76 to 100     4
101 to 150    5
151 to 200    6
201 to 300    7
301 to 400    8
401 to 500    9
501 to 1000   2 percent of total
1001 and over 20, plus 1 for each 100 over 1000

Except as provided in (b), access aisles adjacent to accessible spaces shall
be 60 in (1525 mm) wide minimum.

   (b) One in every eight accessible spaces, but not less than one, shall be
served by an access aisle 96 in (2440 mm) wide minimum and shall be designated
"van accessible" as required by 4.6.4.  The vertical clearance at such spaces
shall comply with 4.6.5.  All such spaces may be grouped on one level of a
parking structure.

EXCEPTION: Provision of all required parking spaces in conformance with
"Universal Parking Design" (see appendix A4.6.3) is permitted.

   (c) If passenger loading zones are provided, then at least one passenger
loading zone shall comply with 4.6.6.

   (d) At facilities providing medical care and other services for persons
with mobility impairments, parking spaces complying with 4.6 shall be provided
in accordance with 4.1.2(5)(a) except as follows:

   (i) Outpatient units and facilities: 10 percent of the total number of
parking spaces provided serving each such outpatient unit or facility;

   (ii) Units and facilities that specialize in treatment or services for
persons with mobility impairments: 20 percent of the total number of parking
spaces provided serving each such unit or facility.

   (e)* Valet parking: Valet parking facilities shall provide a passenger
loading zone complying with 4.6.6 located on an accessible route to the
entrance of the facility.  Paragraphs 5(a), 5(b), and 5(d) of this section do
not apply to valet parking facilities.

  (6) If toilet facilities are provided on a site, then each such public or
common use toilet facility shall comply with 4.22.  If bathing facilities are
provided on a site, then each such public or common use bathing facility shall
comply with 4.23.

For single user portable toilet or bathing units clustered at a single
location, at least 5% but no less than one toilet unit or bathing unit
complying with 4.22 or 4.23 shall be installed at each cluster whenever
typical inaccessible units are provided.  Accessible units shall be identified
by the International Symbol of Accessibility.

EXCEPTION: Portable toilet units at construction sites used exclusively by
construction personnel are not required to comply with 4.1.2(6).

  (7) Building Signage.  Signs which designate permanent rooms and spaces
shall comply with 4.30.1, 4.30.4, 4.30.5 and 4.30.6.  Other signs which
provide direction to, or information about, functional spaces of the building
shall comply with 4.30.1, 4.30.2, 4.30.3, and 4.30.5.  Elements and spaces of
accessible facilities which shall be identified by the International Symbol of
Accessibility and which shall comply with 4.30.7 are:

   (a) Parking spaces designated as reserved for individuals with
disabilities;

   (b) Accessible passenger loading zones;

   (c) Accessible entrances when not all are accessible (inaccessible
entrances shall have directional signage to indicate the route to the nearest
accessible entrance);

   (d) Accessible toilet and bathing facilities when not all are accessible.

4.1.3 Accessible Buildings: New Construction.  Accessible buildings and
facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements:

  (1) At least one accessible route complying with 4.3 shall connect
accessible building or facility entrances with all accessible spaces and
elements within the building or facility.

  (2) All objects that overhang or protrude into circulation paths shall
comply with 4.4.

  (3) Ground and floor surfaces along accessible routes and in accessible
rooms and spaces shall comply with 4.5.

  (4) Interior and exterior stairs connecting levels that are not connected by
an elevator, ramp, or other accessible means of vertical access shall comply
with 4.9.

  (5)* One passenger elevator complying with 4.10 shall serve each level,
including mezzanines, in all multi-story buildings and facilities unless
exempted below.  If more than one elevator is provided, each full passenger
elevator shall comply with 4.10.

EXCEPTION 1: Elevators are not required in facilities that are less than three
stories or that have less than 3000 square feet per story unless the building
is a shopping center, a shopping mall, or the professional office of a health
care provider, or another type of facility as determined by the Attorney
General.  The elevator exemption set forth in this paragraph does not obviate
or limit in any way the obligation to comply with the other accessibility
requirements established in section 4.1.3.  For example, floors above or below
the accessible ground floor must meet the requirements of this section except
for elevator service.  If toilet or bathing facilities are provided on a level
not served by an elevator, then toilet or bathing facilities must be provided
on the accessible ground floor.  In new construction if a building or facility
is eligible for this exemption but a full passenger elevator is nonetheless
planned, that elevator shall meet the requirements of 4.10 and shall serve
each level in the building.  A full passenger elevator that provides service
from a garage to only one level of a building or facility is not required to
serve other levels.

EXCEPTION 2: Elevator pits, elevator penthouses, mechanical rooms, piping or
equipment catwalks are exempted from this requirement.

EXCEPTION 3: Accessible ramps complying with 4.8 may be used in lieu of an
elevator.

EXCEPTION 4: Platform lifts (wheelchair lifts) complying with 4.11 of this
guideline and applicable state or local codes may be used in lieu of an
elevator only under the following conditions:

   (a) To provide an accessible route to a performing area in an assembly
occupancy.

   (b) To comply with the wheelchair viewing position line-of-sight and
dispersion requirements of 4.33.3.

   (c) To provide access to incidental occupiable spaces and rooms which are
not open to the general public and which house no more than five persons,
including but not limited to equipment control rooms and projection booths.

   (d) To provide access where existing site constraints or other constraints
make use of a ramp or an elevator infeasible.

  (6) Windows: (Reserved).

  (7) Doors:

   (a) At each accessible entrance to a building or facility, at least one
door shall comply with 4.13.

   (b) Within a building or facility, at least one door at each accessible
space shall comply with 4.13.

   (c) Each door that is an element of an accessible route shall comply with
4.13.

   (d) Each door required by 4.3.10, Egress, shall comply with 4.13.

  (8) In new construction, at a minimum, the requirements in (a) and (b) below
shall be satisfied independently:

   (a) (i) At least 50% of all public entrances (excluding those in (b) below)
must be accessible.  At least one must be a ground floor entrance.  Public
entrances are any entrances that are not loading or service entrances.

  (ii) Accessible entrances must be provided in a number at least equivalent
to the number of exits required by the applicable building/fire codes.  (This
paragraph does not require an increase in the total number of entrances
planned for a facility.)

  (iii) An accessible entrance must be provided to each tenancy in a facility
(for example, individual stores in a strip shopping center).

  One entrance may be considered as meeting more than one of the requirements
in (a).  Where feasible, accessible entrances shall be the entrances used by
the majority of people visiting or working in the building.

   (b) (i) In addition, if direct access is provided for pedestrians from an
enclosed parking garage to the building, at least one direct entrance from the
garage to the building must be accessible.

       (ii) If access is provided for pedestrians from a pedestrian tunnel or
elevated walkway, one entrance to the building from each tunnel or walkway
must be accessible.

      One entrance may be considered as meeting more than one of the
requirements in (b).

  Because entrances also serve as emergency exits whose proximity to all parts
of buildings and facilities is essential, it is preferable that all entrances
be accessible.  (c) If the only entrance to a building, or tenancy in a
facility, is a service entrance, that entrance shall be accessible.

   (d) Entrances which are not accessible shall have directional signage
complying with 4.30.1, 4.30.2, 4.30.3, and 4.30.5, which indicates the
location of the nearest accessible entrance.

  (9)* In buildings or facilities, or portions of buildings or facilities,
required to be accessible, accessible means of egress shall be provided in the
same number as required for exits by local building/life safety regulations.
Where a required exit from an occupiable level above or below a level of
accessible exit discharge is not accessible, an area of rescue assistance
shall be provided on each such level (in a number equal to that of
inaccessible required exits).  Areas of rescue assistance shall comply with
4.3.11.  A horizontal exit, meeting the requirements of local building/life
safety regulations, shall satisfy the requirement for an area of rescue
assistance.

EXCEPTION: Areas of rescue assistance are not required in buildings or
facilities having a supervised automatic sprinkler system.

  (10)* Drinking Fountains:

   (a) Where only one drinking fountain is provided on a floor there shall be
a drinking fountain which is accessible to individuals who use wheelchairs in
accordance with 4.15 and one accessible to those who have difficulty bending
or stooping.  (This can be accommodated by the use of a "hi-lo" fountain; by
providing one fountain accessible to those who use wheelchairs and one
fountain at a standard height convenient for those who have difficulty
bending; by providing a fountain accessible under 4.15 and a water cooler; or
by such other means as would achieve the required accessibility for each group
on each floor.)

   (b) Where more than one drinking fountain or water cooler is provided on a
floor, 50% of those provided shall comply with 4.15 and shall be on an
accessible route.

  (11) Toilet Facilities: If toilet rooms are provided, then each public and
common use toilet room shall comply with 4.22.  Other toilet rooms provided
for the use of occupants of specific spaces (i.e., a private toilet room for
the occupant of a private office) shall be adaptable.  If bathing rooms are
provided, then each public and common use bathroom shall comply with 4.23.
Accessible toilet rooms and bathing facilities shall be on an accessible
route.

  (12) Storage, Shelving and Display Units:

   (a) If fixed or built-in storage facilities such as cabinets, shelves,
closets, and drawers are provided in accessible spaces, at least one of each
type provided shall contain storage space complying with 4.25.  Additional
storage may be provided outside of the dimensions required by 4.25.

   (b) Shelves or display units allowing self-service by customers in
mercantile occupancies shall be located on an accessible route complying with
4.3.  Requirements for accessible reach range do not apply.

  (13) Controls and operating mechanisms in accessible spaces, along
accessible routes, or as parts of accessible elements (for example, light
switches and dispenser controls) shall comply with 4.27.

  (14) If emergency warning systems are provided, then they shall include both
audible alarms and visual alarms complying with 4.28.  Sleeping accommodations
required to comply with 9.3 shall have an alarm system complying with 4.28.
Emergency warning systems in medical care facilities may be modified to suit
standard health care alarm design practice.

  (15) Detectable warnings shall be provided at locations as specified in
4.29.

  (16) Building Signage:

   (a) Signs which designate permanent rooms and spaces shall comply with
4.30.1, 4.30.4, 4.30.5 and 4.30.6.

   (b) Other signs which provide direction to or information about functional
spaces of the building shall comply with 4.30.1, 4.30.2, 4.30.3, and 4.30.5.

EXCEPTION: Building directories, menus, and all other signs which are
temporary are not required to comply.

  (17) Public telephones:

   (a) If public pay telephones, public closed circuit telephones, or other
public telephones are provided, then they shall comply with 4.31.2 through
4.31.8 to the extent required by the following table:

Number of each type of telephone provided on each floor Number of telephones
required to comply with 4.31.2 through 4.31.8*

1 or more single unit    1 per floor
1 bank**                 1 per floor
2 or more banks**        1 per bank.

Accessible unit may be installed as a single unit in proximity (either visible
or with signage) to the bank.  At least one public telephone per floor shall
meet the requirements for a forward reach telephone***.

* Additional public telephones may be installed at any height.  Unless
otherwise specified, accessible telephones may be either forward or side reach
telephones.

** A bank consists of two or more adjacent public telephones, often installed
as a unit.

*** EXCEPTION: For exterior installations only, if dial tone first service is
available, then a side reach telephone may be installed instead of the
required forward reach telephone (i.e., one telephone in proximity to each
bank shall comply with 4.31).

   (b)* All telephones required to be accessible and complying with 4.31.2
through 4.31.8 shall be equipped with a volume control.  In addition, 25
percent, but never less than one, of all other public telephones provided
shall be equipped with a volume control and shall be dispersed among all types
of public telephones, including closed circuit telephones, throughout the
building or facility.  Signage complying with applicable provisions of 4.30.7
shall be provided.

   (c) The following shall be provided in accordance with 4.31.9:

   (i) if a total number of four or more public pay telephones (including both
interior and exterior phones) is provided at a site, and at least one is in an
interior location, then at least one interior public text telephone shall be
provided.

   (ii) if an interior public pay telephone is provided in a stadium or arena,
in a convention center, in a hotel with a convention center, or in a covered
mall, at least one interior public text telephone shall be provided in the
facility.

   (iii) if a public pay telephone is located in or adjacent to a hospital
emergency room, hospital recovery room, or hospital waiting room, one public
text telephone shall be provided at each such location.

   (d) Where a bank of telephones in the interior of a building consists of
three or more public pay telephones, at least one public pay telephone in each
such bank shall be equipped with a shelf and outlet in compliance with
4.31.9(2).  (18) If fixed or built-in seating or tables (including, but not
limited to, study carrels and student laboratory stations), are provided in
accessible public or common use areas, at least five percent (5%), but not
less than one, of the fixed or built-in seating areas or tables shall comply
with 4.32.  An accessible route shall lead to and through such fixed or
built-in seating areas, or tables.

  (19)* Assembly areas:

   (a) In places of assembly with fixed seating accessible wheelchair
locations shall comply with 4.33.2, 4.33.3, and 4.33.4 and shall be provided
consistent with the following table:

		    Capacity of Seating in Assembly Areas
		   Number of Required Wheelchair Locations
			4 to 25        1
			26 to 50       2
			51 to 300      4
			301 to 500     6
			over 500       6, plus 1 additional space for each 
					total seating capacity increase of 100

In addition, one percent, but not less than one, of all fixed seats shall be
aisle seats with no armrests on the aisle side, or removable or folding
armrests on the aisle side.  Each such seat shall be identified by a sign or
marker.  Signage notifying patrons of the availability of such seats shall be
posted at the ticket office.  Aisle seats are not required to comply with
4.33.4.

   (b) This paragraph applies to assembly areas where audible communications
are integral to the use of the space (e.g., concert and lecture halls,
playhouses and movie theaters, meeting rooms, etc.).  Such assembly areas, if
(1) they accommodate at least 50 persons, or if they have audio-amplification
systems, and (2) they have fixed seating, shall have a permanently installed
assistive listening system complying with 4.33.  For other assembly areas, a
permanently installed assistive listening system, or an adequate number of
electrical outlets or other supplementary wiring necessary to support a
portable assistive listening system shall be provided.  The minimum number of
receivers to be provided shall be equal to 4 percent of the total number of
seats, but in no case less than two.  Signage complying with applicable
provisions of 4.30 shall be installed to notify patrons of the availability of
a listening system.

  (20) Where automated teller machines (ATMs) are provided, each ATM shall
comply with the requirements of 4.34 except where two or more are provided at
a location, then only one must comply.

EXCEPTION: Drive-up-only automated teller machines are not required to comply
with 4.27.2, 4.27.3 and 4.34.3.

  (21) Where dressing and fitting rooms are provided for use by the general
public, patients, customers or employees, 5 percent, but never less than one,
of dressing rooms for each type of use in each cluster of dressing rooms shall
be accessible and shall comply with 4.35.

Examples of types of dressing rooms are those serving different genders or
distinct and different functions as in different treatment or examination
facilities.

4.1.4 (Reserved).

4.1.5 Accessible Buildings: Additions.  Each addition to an existing building
or facility shall be regarded as an alteration.  Each space or element added
to the existing building or facility shall comply with the applicable
provisions of 4.1.1 to 4.1.3, Minimum Requirements (for New Construction) and
the applicable technical specifications of 4.2 through 4.35 and sections 5
through 10.  Each addition that affects or could affect the usability of an
area containing a primary function shall comply with 4.1.6(2).

4.1.6 Accessible Buildings: Alterations.

  (1) General.  Alterations to existing buildings and facilities shall comply
with the following:

   (a) No alteration shall be undertaken which decreases or has the effect of
decreasing accessibility or usability of a building or facility below the
requirements for new construction at the time of alteration.

   (b) If existing elements, spaces, or common areas are altered, then each
such altered element, space, feature, or area shall comply with the applicable
provisions of 4.1.1 to 4.1.3 Minimum Requirements (for New Construction).  If
the applicable provision for new construction requires that an element, space,
or common area be on an accessible route, the altered element, space, or
common area is not required to be on an accessible route except as provided in
4.1.6(2) (Alterations to an Area Containing a Primary Function.)

   (c) If alterations of single elements, when considered together, amount to
an alteration of a room or space in a building or facility, the entire space
shall be made accessible.

   (d) No alteration of an existing element, space, or area of a building or
facility shall impose a requirement for greater accessibility than that which
would be required for new construction.  For example, if the elevators and
stairs in a building are being altered and the elevators are, in turn, being
made accessible, then no accessibility modifications are required to the
stairs connecting levels connected by the elevator.  If stair modifications to
correct unsafe conditions are required by other codes, the modifications shall
be done in compliance with these guidelines unless technically infeasible.

   (e) At least one interior public text telephone complying with 4.31.9 shall
be provided if:

   (i) alterations to existing buildings or facilities with less than four
exterior or interior public pay telephones would increase the total number to
four or more telephones with at least one in an interior location; or

   (ii) alterations to one or more exterior or interior public pay telephones
occur in an existing building or facility with four or more public telephones
with at least one in an interior location.

   (f) If an escalator or stair is planned or installed where none existed
previously and major structural modifications are necessary for such
installation, then a means of accessible vertical access shall be provided
that complies with the applicable provisions of 4.7, 4.8, 4.10, or 4.11.

   (g) In alterations, the requirements of 4.1.3(9), 4.3.10 and 4.3.11 do not
apply.

   (h)* Entrances: If a planned alteration entails alterations to an entrance,
and the building has an accessible entrance, the entrance being altered is not
required to comply with 4.1.3(8), except to the extent required by 4.1.6(2).
If a particular entrance is not made accessible, appropriate accessible
signage indicating the location of the nearest accessible entrance(s) shall be
installed at or near the inaccessible entrance, such that a person with
disabilities will not be required to retrace the approach route from the
inaccessible entrance.  (i) If the alteration work is limited solely to the
electrical, mechanical, or plumbing system, or to hazardous material
abatement, or automatic sprinkler retrofitting, and does not involve the
alteration of any elements or spaces required to be accessible under these
guidelines, then 4.1.6(2) does not apply.

   (j) EXCEPTION: In alteration work, if compliance with 4.1.6 is technically
infeasible, the alteration shall provide accessibility to the maximum extent
feasible.  Any elements or features of the building or facility that are being
altered and can be made accessible shall be made accessible within the scope
of the alteration.

   Technically Infeasible.  Means, with respect to an alteration of a building
or a facility, that it has little likelihood of being accomplished because
existing structural conditions would require removing or altering a
load-bearing member which is an essential part of the structural frame; or
because other existing physical or site constraints prohibit modification or
addition of elements, spaces, or features which are in full and strict
compliance with the minimum requirements for new construction and which are
necessary to provide accessibility.

   (k) EXCEPTION:

   (i) These guidelines do not require the installation of an elevator in an
altered facility that is less than three stories or has less than 3,000 square
feet per story unless the building is a shopping center, a shopping mall, the
professional office of a health care provider, or another type of facility as
determined by the Attorney General.

   (ii) The exemption provided in paragraph (i) does not obviate or limit in
any way the obligation to comply with the other accessibility requirements
established in these guidelines.  For example, alterations to floors above or
below the ground floor must be accessible regardless of whether the altered
facility has an elevator.  If a facility subject to the elevator exemption set
forth in paragraph (i) nonetheless has a full passenger elevator, that
elevator shall meet, to the maximum extent feasible, the accessibility
requirements of these guidelines.

  (2) Alterations to an Area Containing a Primary Function: In addition to the
requirements of 4.1.6(1), an alteration that affects or could affect the
usability of or access to an area containing a primary function shall be made
so as to ensure that, to the maximum extent feasible, the path of travel to
the altered area and the restrooms, telephones, and drinking fountains serving
the altered area, are readily accessible to and usable by individuals with
disabilities, unless such alterations are disproportionate to the overall
alterations in terms of cost and scope (as determined under criteria
established by the Attorney General).

  (3) Special Technical Provisions for Alterations to Existing Buildings and
Facilities:

   (a) Ramps: Curb ramps and interior or exterior ramps to be constructed on
sites or in existing buildings or facilities where space limitations prohibit
the use of a 1:12 slope or less may have slopes and rises as follows:

   (i) A slope between 1:10 and 1:12 is allowed for a maximum rise of 6
inches.

   (ii) A slope between 1:8 and 1:10 is allowed for a maximum rise of 3
inches.  A slope steeper than 1:8 is not allowed.

   (b) Stairs: Full extension of handrails at stairs shall not be required in
alterations where such extensions would be hazardous or impossible due to plan
configuration.

   (c) Elevators:

   (i) If safety door edges are provided in existing automatic elevators,
automatic door reopening devices may be omitted (see 4.10.6).

   (ii) Where existing shaft configuration or technical infeasibility
prohibits strict compliance with 4.10.9, the minimum car plan dimensions may
be reduced by the minimum amount necessary, but in no case shall the inside
car area be smaller than 48 in by 48 in.

   (iii) Equivalent facilitation may be provided with an elevator car of
different dimensions when usability can be demonstrated and when all other
elements required to be accessible comply with the applicable provisions of
4.10.  For example, an elevator of 47 in by 69 in (1195 mm by 1755 mm) with a
door opening on the narrow dimension, could accommodate the standard
wheelchair clearances shown in Figure 4.

   (d) Doors:

   (i) Where it is technically infeasible to comply with clear opening width
requirements of 4.13.5, a projection of 5/8 in maximum will be permitted for
the latch side stop.

   (ii) If existing thresholds are 3/4 in high or less, and have (or are
modified to have) a beveled edge on each side, they may remain.

   (e) Toilet Rooms:

   (i) Where it is technically infeasible to comply with 4.22 or 4.23, the
installation of at least one unisex toilet/bathroom per floor, located in the
same area as existing toilet facilities, will be permitted in lieu of
modifying existing toilet facilities to be accessible.  Each unisex toilet
room shall contain one water closet complying with 4.16 and one lavatory
complying with 4.19, and the door shall have a privacy latch.

   (ii) Where it is technically infeasible to install a required standard
stall (Fig.  30(a)), or where other codes prohibit reduction of the fixture
count (i.e., removal of a water closet in order to create a double-wide
stall), either alternate stall (Fig.30(b)) may be provided in lieu of the
standard stall.

   (iii) When existing toilet or bathing facilities are being altered and are
not made accessible, signage complying with 4.30.1, 4.30.2, 4.30.3, 4.30.5,
and 4.30.7 shall be provided indicating the location of the nearest accessible
toilet or bathing facility within the facility.

   (f) Assembly Areas:

   (i) Where it is technically infeasible to disperse accessible seating
throughout an altered assembly area, accessible seating areas may be
clustered.  Each accessible seating area shall have provisions for companion
seating and shall be located on an accessible route that also serves as a
means of emergency egress.
 

   (ii) Where it is technically infeasible to alter all performing areas to be
on an accessible route, at least one of each type of performing area shall be
made accessible.

   (g) Platform Lifts (Wheelchair Lifts): In alterations, platform lifts
(wheelchair lifts) complying with 4.11 and applicable state or local codes may
be used as part of an accessible route.  The use of lifts is not limited to
the four conditions in exception 4 of 4.1.3(5)

   (h) Dressing Rooms: In alterations where technical infeasibility can be
demonstrated, one dressing room for each sex on each level shall be made
accessible.  Where only unisex dressing rooms are provided, accessible unisex
dressing rooms may be used to fulfill this requirement.

4.1.7 Accessible Buildings: Historic Preservation.

  (1) Applicability:

   (a) General Rule.  Alterations to a qualified historic building or facility
shall comply with 4.1.6 Accessible Buildings: Alterations, the applicable
technical specifications of 4.2 through 4.35 and the applicable special
application sections 5 through 10 unless it is determined in accordance with
the procedures in 4.1.7(2) that compliance with the requirements for
accessible routes (exterior and interior), ramps, entrances, or toilets would
threaten or destroy the historic significance of the building or facility in
which case the alternative requirements in 4.1.7(3) may be used for the
feature.

   EXCEPTION: (Reserved).

   (b) Definition.  A qualified historic building or facility is a building or
facility that is:

   (i) Listed in or eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic
Places; or

   (ii) Designated as historic under an appropriate State or local law.

  (2) Procedures:

   (a) Alterations to Qualified Historic Buildings and Facilities Subject to
Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act:

   (i) Section 106 Process.  Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation
Act (16 U.S.C.  470 f) requires that a Federal agency with jurisdiction over a
Federal, federally assisted, or federally licensed undertaking consider the
effects of the agency's undertaking on buildings and facilities listed in or
eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places and give the
Advisory Council on Historic Preservation a reasonable opportunity to comment
on the undertaking prior to approval of the undertaking.


   (ii) ADA Application.  Where alterations are undertaken to a qualified
historic building or facility that is subject to section 106 of the National
Historic Preservation Act, the Federal agency with jurisdiction over the
undertaking shall follow the section 106 process.  If the State Historic
Preservation Officer or Advisory Council on Historic Preservation agrees that
compliance with the requirements for accessible routes (exterior and
interior), ramps, entrances, or toilets would threaten or destroy the historic
significance of the building or facility, the alternative requirements in
4.1.7(3) may be used for the feature.

   (b) Alterations to Qualified Historic Buildings and Facilities Not Subject
to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.  Where alterations
are undertaken to a qualified historic building or facility that is not
subject to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, if the
entity undertaking the alterations believes that compliance with the
requirements for accessible routes (exterior and interior), ramps, entrances,
or toilets would threaten or destroy the historic significance of the building
or facility and that the alternative requirements in 4.1.7(3) should be used
for the feature, the entity should consult with the State Historic
Preservation Officer.  If the State Historic Preservation Officer agrees that
compliance with the accessibility requirements for accessible routes (exterior
and interior), ramps, entrances or toilets would threaten or destroy the
historical significance of the building or facility, the alternative
requirements in 4.1.7(3) may be used.

   (c) Consultation With Interested Persons.  Interested persons should be
invited to participate in the consultation process, including State or local
accessibility officials, individuals with disabilities, and organizations
representing individuals with disabilities.

   (d) Certified Local Government Historic Preservation Programs.  Where the
State Historic Preservation Officer has delegated the consultation
responsibility for purposes of this section to a local government historic
preservation program that has been certified in accordance with section 101(c)
of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (16 U.S.C.  470a (c)) and
implementing regulations (36 CFR 61.5), the responsibility may be carried out
by the appropriate local government body or official.

  (3) Historic Preservation: Minimum Requirements:

   (a) At least one accessible route complying with 4.3 from a site access
point to an accessible entrance shall be provided.

EXCEPTION: A ramp with a slope no greater than 1:6 for a run not to exceed 2
ft (610 mm) may be used as part of an accessible route to an entrance.

   (b) At least one accessible entrance complying with 4.14 which is used by
the public shall be provided.

EXCEPTION: If it is determined that no entrance used by the public can comply
with 4.14, then access at any entrance not used by the general public but open
(unlocked) with directional signage at the primary entrance may be used.  The
accessible entrance shall also have a notification system.  Where security is
a problem, remote monitoring may be used.

   (c) If toilets are provided, then at least one toilet facility complying
with 4.22 and 4.1.6 shall be provided along an accessible route that complies
with 4.3.  Such toilet facility may be unisex in design.

   (d) Accessible routes from an accessible entrance to all publicly used
spaces on at least the level of the accessible entrance shall be provided.
Access shall be provided to all levels of a building or facility in compliance
with 4.1 whenever practical.

   (e) Displays and written information, documents, etc., should be located
where they can be seen by a seated person.  Exhibits and signage displayed
horizontally (e.g., open books), should be no higher than 44 in (1120 mm)
above the floor surface.

NOTE: The technical provisions of sections 4.2 through 4.35 are the same as
those of the American National Standard Institute's document A117.1-1980,
except as noted in the text.

4.2 Space Allowance and Reach Ranges.

4.2.1* Wheelchair Passage Width.  The minimum clear width for single
wheelchair passage shall be 32 in (815 mm) at a point and 36 in (915 mm)
continuously (see Fig.  1 and 24(e)).

4.2.2 Width for Wheelchair Passing.  The minimum width for two wheelchairs to
pass is 60 in (1525 mm) (see Fig.  2).

4.2.3* Wheelchair Turning Space.  The space required for a wheelchair to make
a 180-degree turn is a clear space of 60 in (1525 mm) diameter (see Fig.
3(a)) or a T-shaped space (see Fig.  3(b)).

4.2.4* Clear Floor or Ground Space for Wheelchairs.

4.2.4.1 Size and Approach.  The minimum clear floor or ground space required
to accommodate a single, stationary wheelchair and occupant is 30 in by 48 in
(760 mm by 1220 mm) (see Fig.  4(a)).  The minimum clear floor or ground space
for wheelchairs may be positioned for forward or parallel approach to an
object (see Fig.  4(b) and (c)).  Clear floor or ground space for wheelchairs
may be part of the knee space required under some objects.

4.2.4.2 Relationship of Maneuvering Clearance to Wheelchair Spaces.  One full
unobstructed side of the clear floor or ground space for a wheelchair shall
adjoin or overlap an accessible route or adjoin another wheelchair clear floor
space.  If a clear floor space is located in an alcove or otherwise confined
on all or part of three sides, additional maneuvering clearances shall be
provided as shown in Fig.  4(d) and (e).

4.2.4.3 Surfaces for Wheelchair Spaces.  Clear floor or ground spaces for
wheelchairs shall comply with 4.5.

4.2.5* Forward Reach.  If the clear floor space only allows forward approach
to an object, the maximum high forward reach allowed shall be 48 in (1220 mm)
(see Fig.  5(a)).  The minimum low forward reach is 15 in (380 mm).  If the
high forward reach is over an obstruction, reach and clearances shall be as
shown in Fig.  5(b).


4.2.6* Side Reach.  If the clear floor space allows parallel approach by a
person in a wheelchair, the maximum high side reach allowed shall be 54 in
(1370 mm) and the low side reach shall be no less than 9 in (230 mm) above the
floor (Fig.  6(a) and (b)).  If the side reach is over an obstruction, the
reach and clearances shall be as shown in Fig 6(c).

4.3 Accessible Route.

4.3.1* General.  All walks, halls, corridors, aisles, skywalks, tunnels, and
other spaces that are part of an accessible route shall comply with 4.3.

4.3.2 Location.

  (1) At least one accessible route within the boundary of the site shall be
provided from public transportation stops, accessible parking, and accessible
passenger loading zones, and public streets or sidewalks to the accessible
building entrance they serve.  The accessible route shall, to the maximum
extent feasible, coincide with the route for the general public.

  (2) At least one accessible route shall connect accessible buildings,
facilities, elements, and spaces that are on the same site.

  (3) At least one accessible route shall connect accessible building or
facility entrances with all accessible spaces and elements and with all
accessible dwelling units within the building or facility.

  (4) An accessible route shall connect at least one accessible entrance of
each accessible dwelling unit with those exterior and interior spaces and
facilities that serve the accessible dwelling unit.

4.3.3 Width.  The minimum clear width of an accessible route shall be 36 in
(915 mm) except at doors (see 4.13.5 and 4.13.6).  If a person in a wheelchair
must make a turn around an obstruction, the minimum clear width of the
accessible route shall be as shown in Fig.  7(a) and (b).

4.3.4 Passing Space.  If an accessible route has less than 60 in (1525 mm)
clear width, then passing spaces at least 60 in by 60 in (1525 mm by 1525 mm)
shall be located at reasonable intervals not to exceed 200 ft (61 m).  A
T-intersection of two corridors or walks is an acceptable passing place.

4.3.5 Head Room.  Accessible routes shall comply with 4.4.2.

4.3.6 Surface Textures.  The surface of an accessible route shall comply with
4.5.

4.3.7 Slope.  An accessible route with a running slope greater than 1:20 is a
ramp and shall comply with 4.8.  Nowhere shall the cross slope of an
accessible route exceed 1:50.

4.3.8 Changes in Levels.  Changes in levels along an accessible route shall
comply with 4.5.2.  If an accessible route has changes in level greater than
1/2 in (13 mm), then a curb ramp, ramp, elevator, or platform lift (as
permitted in 4.1.3 and 4.1.6) shall be provided that complies with 4.7, 4.8,
4.10, or 4.11, respectively.  An accessible route does not include stairs,
steps, or escalators.  See definition of "egress, means of" in 3.5.

4.3.9 Doors.  Doors along an accessible route shall comply with 4.13.

4.3.10* Egress.  Accessible routes serving any accessible space or element
shall also serve as a means of egress for emergencies or connect to an
accessible area of rescue assistance.

 4.3.11 Areas of Rescue Assistance.

4.3.11.1 Location and Construction.  An area of rescue assistance shall be one
of the following:

  (1) A portion of a stairway landing within a smokeproof enclosure (complying
with local requirements).

  (2) A portion of an exterior exit balcony located immediately adjacent to an
exit stairway when the balcony complies with local requirements for exterior
exit balconies.  Openings to the interior of the building located within 20
feet (6 m) of the area of rescue assistance shall be protected with fire
assemblies having a three-fourths hour fire protection rating.

  (3) A portion of a one-hour fire-resistive corridor (complying with local
requirements for fire- resistive construction and for openings) located
immediately adjacent to an exit enclosure.

  (4) A vestibule located immediately adjacent to an exit enclosure and
constructed to the same fire-resistive standards as required for corridors and
openings.

  (5) A portion of a stairway landing within an exit enclosure which is vented
to the exterior and is separated from the interior of the building with not
less than one-hour fire-resistive doors.

  (6) When approved by the appropriate local authority, an area or a room
which is separated from other portions of the building by a smoke barrier.
Smoke barriers shall have a fire-resistive rating of not less than one hour
and shall completely enclose the area or room.  Doors in the smoke barrier
shall be tight-fitting smoke- and draft-control assemblies having a
fire-protection rating of not less than 20 minutes and shall be self-closing
or automatic closing.  The area or room shall be provided with an exit
directly to an exit enclosure.  Where the room or area exits into an exit
enclosure which is required to be of more than one-hour fire-resistive
construction, the room or area shall have the same fire-resistive
construction, including the same opening protection, as required for the
adjacent exit enclosure.

  (7) An elevator lobby when elevator shafts and adjacent lobbies are
pressurized as required for smokeproof enclosures by local regulations and
when complying with requirements herein for size, communication, and signage.
Such pressurization system shall be activated by smoke detectors on each floor
located in a manner approved by the appropriate local authority.
Pressurization equipment and its duct work within the building shall be
separated from other portions of the building by a minimum two-hour
fire-resistive construction.

4.3.11.2 Size.  Each area of rescue assistance shall provide at least two
accessible areas each being not less than 30 inches by 48 inches (760 mm by
1220 mm).  The area of rescue assistance shall not encroach on any required
exit width.  The total number of such 30-inch by 48-inch (760 mm by 1220 mm)
areas per story shall be not less than one for every 200 persons of calculated
occupant load served by the area of rescue assistance.

EXCEPTION: The appropriate local authority may reduce the minimum number of
30-inch by 48-inch (760 mm by 1220 mm) areas to one for each area of rescue
assistance on floors where the occupant load is less than 200.

4.3.11.3* Stairway Width.  Each stairway adjacent to an area of rescue
assistance shall have a minimum clear width of 48 inches between handrails.

4.3.11.4* Two-way Communication.  A method of two-way communication, with both
visible and audible signals, shall be provided between each area of rescue
assistance and the primary entry.  The fire department or appropriate local
authority may approve a location other than the primary entry.

4.3.11.5 Identification.  Each area of rescue assistance shall be identified
by a sign which states "AREA OF RESCUE ASSISTANCE" and displays the
international symbol of accessibility.  The sign shall be illuminated when
exit sign illumination is required.  Signage shall also be installed at all
inaccessible exits and where otherwise necessary to clearly indicate the
direction to areas of rescue assistance.  In each area of rescue assistance,
instructions on the use of the area under emergency conditions shall be posted
adjoining the two-way communication system.

4.4 Protruding Objects.

4.4.1* General.  Objects projecting from walls (for example, telephones) with
their leading edges between 27 in and 80 in (685 mm and 2030 mm) above the
finished floor shall protrude no more than 4 in (100 mm) into walks, halls,
corridors, passageways, or aisles (see Fig.  8(a)).  Objects mounted with
their leading edges at or below 27 in (685 mm) above the finished floor may
protrude any amount (see Fig.  8(a) and (b)).  Free-standing objects mounted
on posts or pylons may overhang 12 in (305 mm) maximum from 27 in to 80 in
(685 mm to 2030 mm) above the ground or finished floor (see Fig.  8(c) and
(d)).  Protruding objects shall not reduce the clear width of an accessible
route or maneuvering space (see Fig.  8(e)).

4.4.2 Head Room.  Walks, halls, corridors, passageways, aisles, or other
circulation spaces shall have 80 in (2030 mm) minimum clear head room (see
Fig.  8(a)).  If vertical clearance of an area adjoining an accessible route
is reduced to less than 80 in (nominal dimension), a barrier to warn blind or
visually-impaired persons shall be provided (see Fig.  8(c-1)).

4.5 Ground and Floor Surfaces.

4.5.1* General.  Ground and floor surfaces along accessible routes and in
accessible rooms and spaces including floors, walks, ramps, stairs, and curb
ramps, shall be stable, firm, slip- resistant, and shall comply with 4.5.

4.5.2 Changes in Level.  Changes in level up to 1/4 in (6 mm) may be vertical
and without edge treatment (see Fig.  7(c) ).  Changes in level between 1/4 in
and 1/2 in (6 mm and 13 mm) shall be beveled with a slope no greater than 1:2
(see Fig.  7(d) ).  Changes in level greater than 1/2 in (13 mm) shall be
accomplished by means of a ramp that complies with 4.7 or 4.8.

4.5.3* Carpet.  If carpet or carpet tile is used on a ground or floor surface,
then it shall be securely attached; have a firm cushion, pad, or backing, or
no cushion or pad; and have a level loop, textured loop, level cut pile, or
level cut/uncut pile texture.  The maximum pile thickness shall be 1/2 in (13
mm) (see Fig.  8(f)).  Exposed edges of carpet shall be fastened to floor
surfaces and have trim along the entire length of the exposed edge.  Carpet
edge trim shall comply with 4.5.2.

4.5.4 Gratings.  If gratings are located in walking surfaces, then they shall
have spaces no greater than 1/2 in (13 mm) wide in one direction (see Fig.
8(g)).  If gratings have elongated openings, then they shall be placed so that
the long dimension is perpendicular to the dominant direction of travel (see
Fig.  8(h)).


4.6 Parking and Passenger Loading Zones.

4.6.1 Minimum Number.  Parking spaces required to be accessible by 4.1 shall
comply with 4.6.2 through 4.6.5.  Passenger loading zones required to be
accessible by 4.1 shall comply with 4.6.5 and 4.6.6.


4.6.2 Location.  Accessible parking spaces serving a particular building shall
be located on the shortest accessible route of travel from adjacent parking to
an accessible entrance.  In parking facilities that do not serve a particular
building, accessible parking shall be located on the shortest accessible route
of travel to an accessible pedestrian entrance of the parking facility.  In
buildings with multiple accessible entrances with adjacent parking, accessible
parking spaces shall be dispersed and located closest to the accessible
entrances.

4.6.3* Parking Spaces.  Accessible parking spaces shall be at least 96 in
(2440 mm) wide.  Parking access aisles shall be part of an accessible route to
the building or facility entrance and shall comply with 4.3.  Two accessible
parking spaces may share a common access aisle (see Fig.  9).  Parked vehicle
overhangs shall not reduce the clear width of an accessible route.  Parking
spaces and access aisles shall be level with surface slopes not exceeding 1:50
(2%) in all directions.

4.6.4* Signage.  Accessible parking spaces shall be designated as reserved by
a sign showing the symbol of accessibility (see 4.30.7).  Spaces complying
with 4.1.2(5)(b) shall have an additional sign "Van-Accessible" mounted below
the symbol of accessibility.  Such signs shall be located so they cannot be
obscured by a vehicle parked in the space.

4.6.5* Vertical Clearance.  Provide minimum vertical clearance of 114 in (2895
mm) at accessible passenger loading zones and along at least one vehicle
access route to such areas from site entrance(s) and exit(s).  At parking
spaces complying with 4.1.2(5)(b), provide minimum vertical clearance of 98 in
(2490 mm) at the parking space and along at least one vehicle access route to
such spaces from site entrance(s) and exit(s).

4.6.6 Passenger Loading Zones.  Passenger loading zones shall provide an
access aisle at least 60 in (1525 mm) wide and 20 ft (240 in)(6100 mm) long
adjacent and parallel to the vehicle pull-up space (see Fig.  10).  If there
are curbs between the access aisle and the vehicle pull-up space, then a curb
ramp complying with 4.7 shall be provided.  Vehicle standing spaces and access
aisles shall be level with surface slopes not exceeding 1:50 (2%) in all
directions.

4.7 Curb Ramps.

4.7.1 Location.  Curb ramps complying with 4.7 shall be provided wherever an
accessible route crosses a curb.

4.7.2 Slope.  Slopes of curb ramps shall comply with 4.8.2.  The slope shall
be measured as shown in Fig.  11.  Transitions from ramps to walks, gutters,
or streets shall be flush and free of abrupt changes.  Maximum slopes of
adjoining gutters, road surface immediately adjacent to the curb ramp, or
accessible route shall not exceed 1:20.

4.7.3 Width.  The minimum width of a curb ramp shall be 36 in (915 mm),
exclusive of flared sides.

4.7.4 Surface.  Surfaces of curb ramps shall comply with 4.5.

4.7.5 Sides of Curb Ramps.  If a curb ramp is located where pedestrians must
walk across the ramp, or where it is not protected by handrails or guardrails,
it shall have flared sides; the maximum slope of the flare shall be 1:10 (see
Fig.  12(a)).  Curb ramps with returned curbs may be used where pedestrians
would not normally walk across the ramp (see Fig.  12(b)).

4.7.6 Built-up Curb Ramps.  Built-up curb ramps shall be located so that they
do not project into vehicular traffic lanes (see Fig.  13).

4.7.7 Detectable Warnings.  A curb ramp shall have a detectable warning
complying with 4.29.2.  The detectable warning shall extend the full width and
depth of the curb ramp.

4.7.8 Obstructions.  Curb ramps shall be located or protected to prevent their
obstruction by parked vehicles.

4.7.9 Location at Marked Crossings.  Curb ramps at marked crossings shall be
wholly contained within the markings, excluding any flared sides (see Fig.
15).

4.7.10 Diagonal Curb Ramps.  If diagonal (or corner type) curb ramps have
returned curbs or other well-defined edges, such edges shall be parallel to
the direction of pedestrian flow.  The bottom of diagonal curb ramps shall
have 48 in (1220 mm) minimum clear space as shown in Fig.  15(c) and (d).  If
diagonal curb ramps are provided at marked crossings, the 48 in (1220 mm)
clear space shall be within the markings (see Fig.  15(c) and (d)).  If
diagonal curb ramps have flared sides, they shall also have at least a 24 in
(610 mm) long segment of straight curb located on each side of the curb ramp
and within the marked crossing (see Fig.  15(c)).

4.7.11 Islands.  Any raised islands in crossings shall be cut through level
with the street or have curb ramps at both sides and a level area at least 48
in (1220 mm) long between the curb ramps in the part of the island intersected
by the crossings (see Fig.  15(a) and (b)).

4.8 Ramps.

4.8.1* General.  Any part of an accessible route with a slope greater than
1:20 shall be considered a ramp and shall comply with 4.8.

4.8.2* Slope and Rise.  The least possible slope shall be used for any ramp.
The maximum slope of a ramp in new construction shall be 1:12.  The maximum
rise for any run shall be 30 in (760 mm) (see Fig.  16).  Curb ramps and ramps
to be constructed on existing sites or in existing buildings or facilities may
have slopes and rises as allowed in 4.1.6(3)(a) if space limitations prohibit
the use of a 1:12 slope or less.

4.8.3 Clear Width.  The minimum clear width of a ramp shall be 36 in (915 mm).

4.8.4* Landings.  Ramps shall have level landings at bottom and top of each
ramp and each ramp run.  Landings shall have the following features:

  (1) The landing shall be at least as wide as the ramp run leading to it.

  (2) The landing length shall be a minimum of 60 in (1525 mm) clear.

  (3) If ramps change direction at landings, the minimum landing size shall be
60 in by 60 in (1525 mm by 1525 mm).

  (4) If a doorway is located at a landing, then the area in front of the
doorway shall comply with 4.13.6.

4.8.5* Handrails.  If a ramp run has a rise greater than 6 in (150 mm) or a
horizontal projection greater than 72 in (1830 mm), then it shall have
handrails on both sides.  Handrails are not required on curb ramps or adjacent
to seating in assembly areas.  Handrails shall comply with 4.26 and shall have
the following features:

  (1) Handrails shall be provided along both sides of ramp segments.  The
inside handrail on switchback or dogleg ramps shall always be continuous.

  (2) If handrails are not continuous, they shall extend at least 12 in (305
mm) beyond the top and bottom of the ramp segment and shall be parallel with
the floor or ground surface (see Fig.  17).

  (3) The clear space between the handrail and the wall shall be 1 - 1/2 in
(38 mm).

  (4) Gripping surfaces shall be continuous.

  (5) Top of handrail gripping surfaces shall be mounted between 34 in and 38
in (865 mm and 965 mm) above ramp surfaces.

  (6) Ends of handrails shall be either rounded or returned smoothly to floor,
wall, or post.

  (7) Handrails shall not rotate within their fittings.

4.8.6 Cross Slope and Surfaces.  The cross slope of ramp surfaces shall be no
greater than 1:50.  Ramp surfaces shall comply with 4.5.

4.8.7 Edge Protection.  Ramps and landings with drop-offs shall have curbs,
walls, railings, or projecting surfaces that prevent people from slipping off
the ramp.  Curbs shall be a minimum of 2 in (50 mm) high (see Fig.  17).

4.8.8 Outdoor Conditions.  Outdoor ramps and their approaches shall be
designed so that water will not accumulate on walking surfaces.


4.9 Stairs.

4.9.1* Minimum Number.  Stairs required to be accessible by 4.1 shall comply
with 4.9.

4.9.2 Treads and Risers.  On any given flight of stairs, all steps shall have
uniform riser heights and uniform tread widths.  Stair treads shall be no less
than 11 in (280 mm) wide, measured from riser to riser (see Fig.  18(a)).
Open risers are not permitted.


4.9.3 Nosings.  The undersides of nosings shall not be abrupt.  The radius of
curvature at the leading edge of the tread shall be no greater than 1/2 in (13
mm).  Risers shall be sloped or the underside of the nosing shall have an
angle not less than 60 degrees from the horizontal.  Nosings shall project no
more than 1-1/2 in (38 mm) (see Fig.  18).

4.9.4 Handrails.  Stairways shall have handrails at both sides of all stairs.
Handrails shall comply with 4.26 and shall have the following features:

  (1) Handrails shall be continuous along both sides of stairs.  The inside
handrail on switchback or dogleg stairs shall always be continuous (see Fig.
19(a) and (b)).

  (2) If handrails are not continuous, they shall extend at least 12 in (305
mm) beyond the top riser and at least 12 in (305 mm) plus the width of one
tread beyond the bottom riser.  At the top, the extension shall be parallel
with the floor or ground surface.  At the bottom, the handrail shall continue
to slope for a distance of the width of one tread from the bottom riser; the
remainder of the extension shall be horizontal (see Fig.  19(c) and (d)).
Handrail extensions shall comply with 4.4.

  (3) The clear space between handrails and wall shall be 1-1/2 in (38 mm).

  (4) Gripping surfaces shall be uninterrupted by newel posts, other
construction elements, or obstructions.

  (5) Top of handrail gripping surface shall be mounted between 34 in and 38
in (865 mm and 965 mm) above stair nosings.

  (6) Ends of handrails shall be either rounded or returned smoothly to floor,
wall or post.

  (7) Handrails shall not rotate within their fittings.

4.9.5 Detectable Warnings at Stairs.  (Reserved).

4.9.6 Outdoor Conditions.  Outdoor stairs and their approaches shall be
designed so that water will not accumulate on walking surfaces.

4.10 Elevators.

4.10.1 General.  Accessible elevators shall be on an accessible route and
shall comply with 4.10 and with the ASME A17.1-1990, Safety Code for Elevators
and Escalators.  Freight elevators shall not be considered as meeting the
requirements of this section unless the only elevators provided are used as
combination passenger and freight elevators for the public and employees.

4.10.2 Automatic Operation.  Elevator operation shall be automatic.  Each car
shall be equipped with a self-leveling feature that will automatically bring
the car to floor landings within a tolerance of 1/2 in (13 mm) under rated
loading to zero loading conditions.  This self- leveling feature shall be
automatic and independent of the operating device and shall correct the
over-travel or under- travel.

4.10.3 Hall Call Buttons.  Call buttons in elevator lobbies and halls shall be
centered at 42 in (1065 mm) above the floor.  Such call buttons shall have
visual signals to indicate when each call is registered and when each call is
answered.  Call buttons shall be a minimum of 3/4 in (19 mm) in the smallest
dimension.  The button designating the up direction shall be on top.  (See
Fig.  20.) Buttons shall be raised or flush.  Objects mounted beneath hall
call buttons shall not project into the elevator lobby more than 4 in (100
mm).

4.10.4 Hall Lanterns.  A visible and audible signal shall be provided at each
hoistway entrance to indicate which car is answering a call.  Audible signals
shall sound once for the up direction and twice for the down direction or
shall have verbal annunciators that say "up" or "down." Visible signals shall
have the following features:

  (1) Hall lantern fixtures shall be mounted so that their centerline is at
least 72 in (1830 mm) above the lobby floor.  (See Fig.  20.)

  (2) Visual elements shall be at least 2-1/2 in (64 mm) in the smallest
dimension.

  (3) Signals shall be visible from the vicinity of the hall call button (see
Fig.  20).  In-car lanterns located in cars, visible from the vicinity of hall
call buttons, and conforming to the above requirements, shall be acceptable.

4.10.5 Raised and Braille Characters on Hoistway Entrances.  All elevator
hoistway entrances shall have raised and Braille floor designations provided
on both jambs.  The centerline of the characters shall be 60 in (1525 mm)
above finish floor.  Such characters shall be 2 in (50 mm) high and shall
comply with 4.30.4.  Permanently applied plates are acceptable if they are
permanently fixed to the jambs.  (See Fig.  20).

4.10.6* Door Protective and Reopening Device.  Elevator doors shall open and
close automatically.  They shall be provided with a reopening device that will
stop and reopen a car door and hoistway door automatically if the door becomes
obstructed by an object or person.  The device shall be capable of completing
these operations without requiring contact for an obstruction passing through
the opening at heights of 5 in and 29 in (125 mm and 735 mm) above finish
floor (see Fig.  20).  Door reopening devices shall remain effective for at
least 20 seconds.  After such an interval, doors may close in accordance with
the requirements of ASME A17.1-1990.


4.10.7* Door and Signal Timing for Hall Calls.  The minimum acceptable time
from notification that a car is answering a call until the doors of that car
start to close shall be calculated from the following equation:

		     T = D/(1.5 ft/s) or T = D/(445 mm/s)

where T total time in seconds and D distance (in feet or millimeters) from a
point in the lobby or corridor 60 in (1525 mm) directly in front of the
farthest call button controlling that car to the centerline of its hoistway
door (see Fig.  21).  For cars with in-car lanterns, T begins when the lantern
is visible from the vicinity of hall call buttons and an audible signal is
sounded.  The minimum acceptable notification time shall be 5 seconds.

4.10.8 Door Delay for Car Calls.  The minimum time for elevator doors to
remain fully open in response to a car call shall be 3 seconds.

4.10.9 Floor Plan of Elevator Cars.  The floor area of elevator cars shall
provide space for wheelchair users to enter the car, maneuver within reach of
controls, and exit from the car.  Acceptable door opening and inside
dimensions shall be as shown in Fig.  22.  The clearance between the car
platform sill and the edge of any hoistway landing shall be no greater than
1-1/4 in (32 mm).


4.10.10 Floor Surfaces.  Floor surfaces shall comply with 4.5.

4.10.11 Illumination Levels.  The level of illumination at the car controls,
platform, and car threshold and landing sill shall be at least 5 footcandles
(53.8 lux).

4.10.12* Car Controls.  Elevator control panels shall have the following
features:

  (1) Buttons.  All control buttons shall be at least 3/4 in (19 mm) in their
smallest dimension.  They shall be raised or flush.

  (2) Tactile, Braille, and Visual Control Indicators.  All control buttons
shall be designated by Braille and by raised standard alphabet characters for
letters, arabic characters for numerals, or standard symbols as shown in Fig.
23(a), and as required in ASME A17.1-1990.  Raised and Braille characters and
symbols shall comply with 4.30.  The call button for the main entry floor
shall be designated by a raised star at the left of the floor designation (see
Fig.  23(a)).  All raised designations for control buttons shall be placed
immediately to the left of the button to which they apply.  Applied plates,
permanently attached, are an acceptable means to provide raised control
designations.  Floor buttons shall be provided with visual indicators to show
when each call is registered.  The visual indicators shall be extinguished
when each call is answered.

  (3) Height.  All floor buttons shall be no higher than 54 in (1370 mm) above
the finish floor for side approach and 48 in (1220 mm) for front approach.
Emergency controls, including the emergency alarm and emergency stop, shall be
grouped at the bottom of the panel and shall have their centerlines no less
than 35 in (890 mm) above the finish floor (see Fig.  23(a) and (b)).  (4)
Location.  Controls shall be located on a front wall if cars have center
opening doors, and at the side wall or at the front wall next to the door if
cars have side opening doors (see Fig.  23(c) and (d)).

4.10.13* Car Position Indicators.  In elevator cars, a visual car position
indicator shall be provided above the car control panel or over the door to
show the position of the elevator in the hoistway.  As the car passes or stops
at a floor served by the elevators, the corresponding numerals shall
illuminate, and an audible signal shall sound.  Numerals shall be a minimum of
1/2 in (13 mm) high.  The audible signal shall be no less than 20 decibels
with a frequency no higher than 1500 Hz.  An automatic verbal announcement of
the floor number at which a car stops or which a car passes may be substituted
for the audible signal.

4.10.14* Emergency Communications.  If provided, emergency two-way
communication systems between the elevator and a point outside the hoistway
shall comply with ASME A17.1-1990.  The highest operable part of a two-way
communication system shall be a maximum of 48 in (1220 mm) from the floor of
the car.  It shall be identified by a raised symbol and lettering complying
with 4.30 and located adjacent to the device.  If the system uses a handset
then the length of the cord from the panel to the handset shall be at least 29
in (735 mm).  If the system is located in a closed compartment the compartment
door hardware shall conform to 4.27, Controls and Operating Mechanisms.  The
emergency intercommunication system shall not require voice communication.

4.11 Platform Lifts (Wheelchair Lifts).

4.11.1 Location.  Platform lifts (wheelchair lifts) permitted by 4.1 shall
comply with the requirements of 4.11.

4.11.2* Other Requirements.  If platform lifts (wheelchair lifts) are used,
they shall comply with 4.2.4, 4.5, 4.27, and ASME A17.1 Safety Code for
Elevators and Escalators, Section XX, 1990.

 4.11.3 Entrance.  If platform lifts are used then they shall facilitate
unassisted entry, operation, and exit from the lift in compliance with 4.11.2.

4.12 Windows.

4.12.1* General.  (Reserved).

4.12.2* Window Hardware.  (Reserved).

4.13 Doors.

4.13.1 General.  Doors required to be accessible by 4.1 shall comply with the
requirements of 4.13.

4.13.2 Revolving Doors and Turnstiles.  Revolving doors or turnstiles shall
not be the only means of passage at an accessible entrance or along an
accessible route.  An accessible gate or door shall be provided adjacent to
the turnstile or revolving door and shall be so designed as to facilitate the
same use pattern.

4.13.3 Gates.  Gates, including ticket gates, shall meet all applicable
specifications of 4.13.

4.13.4 Double-Leaf Doorways.  If doorways have two independently operated door
leaves, then at least one leaf shall meet the specifications in 4.13.5 and
4.13.6.  That leaf shall be an active leaf.

4.13.5 Clear Width.  Doorways shall have a minimum clear opening of 32 in (815
mm) with the door open 90 degrees, measured between the face of the door and
the opposite stop (see Fig.  24(a), (b), (c), and (d)).  Openings more than 24
in (610 mm) in depth shall comply with 4.2.1 and 4.3.3 (see Fig.  24(e)).

EXCEPTION: Doors not requiring full user passage, such as shallow closets, may
have the clear opening reduced to 20 in (510 mm) minimum.

4.13.6 Maneuvering Clearances at Doors.  Minimum maneuvering clearances at
doors that are not automatic or power-assisted shall be as shown in Fig.  25.
The floor or ground area within the required clearances shall be level and
clear.

EXCEPTION: Entry doors to acute care hospital bedrooms for in-patients shall
be exempted from the requirement for space at the latch side of the door (see
dimension "x" in Fig.  25) if the door is at least 44 in (1120 mm) wide.

4.13.7 Two Doors in Series.  The minimum space between two hinged or pivoted
doors in series shall be 48 in (1220 mm) plus the width of any door swinging
into the space.  Doors in series shall swing either in the same direction or
away from the space between the doors (see Fig.  26).

 4.13.8* Thresholds at Doorways.  Thresholds at doorways shall not exceed 3/4
in (19 mm) in height for exterior sliding doors or 1/2 in (13 mm) for other
types of doors.  Raised thresholds and floor level changes at accessible
doorways shall be beveled with a slope no greater than 1:2 (see 4.5.2).

4.13.9* Door Hardware.  Handles, pulls, latches, locks, and other operating
devices on accessible doors shall have a shape that is easy to grasp with one
hand and does not require tight grasping, tight pinching, or twisting of the
wrist to operate.  Lever-operated mechanisms, push-type mechanisms, and
U-shaped handles are acceptable designs.  When sliding doors are fully open,
operating hardware shall be exposed and usable from both sides.  Hardware
required for accessible door passage shall be mounted no higher than 48 in
(1220 mm) above finished floor.

4.13.10* Door Closers.  If a door has a closer, then the sweep period of the
closer shall be adjusted so that from an open position of 70 degrees, the door
will take at least 3 seconds to move to a point 3 in (75 mm) from the latch,
measured to the leading edge of the door.

4.13.11* Door Opening Force.  The maximum force for pushing or pulling open a
door shall be as follows:

  (1) Fire doors shall have the minimum opening force allowable by the
appropriate administrative authority.

  (2) Other doors.

   (a) exterior hinged doors: (Reserved).

   (b) interior hinged doors: 5 lbf (22.2N)

   (c) sliding or folding doors: 5 lbf (22.2N)

These forces do not apply to the force required to retract latch bolts or
disengage other devices that may hold the door in a closed position.

4.13.12* Automatic Doors and Power-Assisted Doors.  If an automatic door is
used, then it shall comply with ANSI/BHMA A156.10-1985.  Slowly opening,
low-powered, automatic doors shall comply with ANSI A156.19-1984.  Such doors
shall not open to back check faster than 3 seconds and shall require no more
than 15 lbf (66.6N) to stop door movement.  If a power- assisted door is used,
its door-opening force shall comply with 4.13.11 and its closing shall conform
to the requirements in ANSI A156.19-1984.

4.14 Entrances.

4.14.1 Minimum Number.  Entrances required to be accessible by 4.1 shall be
part of an accessible route complying with 4.3.  Such entrances shall be
connected by an accessible route to public transportation stops, to accessible
parking and passenger loading zones, and to public streets or sidewalks if
available (see 4.3.2(1)).  They shall also be connected by an accessible route
to all accessible spaces or elements within the building or facility.


4.14.2 Service Entrances.  A service entrance shall not be the sole accessible
entrance unless it is the only entrance to a building or facility (for
example, in a factory or garage).

4.15 Drinking Fountains and Water Coolers.

4.15.1 Minimum Number.  Drinking fountains or water coolers required to be
accessible by 4.1 shall comply with 4.15.

4.15.2* Spout Height.  Spouts shall be no higher than 36 in (915 mm), measured
from the floor or ground surfaces to the spout outlet (see Fig.  27(a)).

4.15.3 Spout Location.  The spouts of drinking fountains and water coolers
shall be at the front of the unit and shall direct the water flow in a
trajectory that is parallel or nearly parallel to the front of the unit.  The
spout shall provide a flow of water at least 4 in (100 mm) high so as to allow
the insertion of a cup or glass under the flow of water.  On an accessible
drinking fountain with a round or oval bowl, the spout must be positioned so
the flow of water is within 3 in (75 mm) of the front edge of the fountain.


4.15.4 Controls.  Controls shall comply with 4.27.4.  Unit controls shall be
front mounted or side mounted near the front edge.

4.15.5 Clearances.

  (1) Wall- and post-mounted cantilevered units shall have a clear knee space
between the bottom of the apron and the floor or ground at least 27 in (685
mm) high, 30 in (760 mm) wide, and 17 in to 19 in (430 mm to 485 mm) deep (see
Fig.  27(a) and (b)).  Such units shall also have a minimum clear floor space
30 in by 48 in (760 mm by 1220 mm) to allow a person in a wheelchair to
approach the unit facing forward.

  (2) Free-standing or built-in units not having a clear space under them
shall have a clear floor space at least 30 in by 48 in (760 mm by 1220 mm)
that allows a person in a wheelchair to make a parallel approach to the unit
(see Fig.  27(c) and (d)).  This clear floor space shall comply with 4.2.4.

4.16 Water Closets.

4.16.1 General.  Accessible water closets shall comply with 4.16.


4.16.2 Clear Floor Space.  Clear floor space for water closets not in stalls
shall comply with Fig.  28.  Clear floor space may be arranged to allow either
a left-handed or right-handed approach.

 4.16.3* Height.  The height of water closets shall be 17 in to 19 in (430 mm
to 485 mm), measured to the top of the toilet seat (see Fig.  29(b)).  Seats
shall not be sprung to return to a lifted position.

4.16.4* Grab Bars.  Grab bars for water closets not located in stalls shall
comply with 4.26 and Fig.  29.  The grab bar behind the water closet shall be
36 in (915 mm) minimum.

4.16.5* Flush Controls.  Flush controls shall be hand operated or automatic
and shall comply with 4.27.4.  Controls for flush valves shall be mounted on
the wide side of toilet areas no more than 44 in (1120 mm) above the floor.

4.16.6 Dispensers.  Toilet paper dispensers shall be installed within reach,
as shown in Fig.  29(b).  Dispensers that control delivery, or that do not
permit continuous paper flow, shall not be used.

4.17 Toilet Stalls.

4.17.1 Location.  Accessible toilet stalls shall be on an accessible route and
shall meet the requirements of 4.17.

4.17.2 Water Closets.  Water closets in accessible stalls shall comply with
4.16.

4.17.3* Size and Arrangement.  The size and arrangement of the standard toilet
stall shall comply with Fig.  30(a), Standard Stall.  Standard toilet stalls
with a minimum depth of 56 in (1420 mm) (see Fig.  30(a)) shall have
wall-mounted water closets.  If the depth of a standard toilet stall is
increased at least 3 in (75 mm), then a floor-mounted water closet may be
used.  Arrangements shown for standard toilet stalls may be reversed to allow
either a left- or right- hand approach.  Additional stalls shall be provided
in conformance with 4.22.4.

EXCEPTION: In instances of alteration work where provision of a standard stall
(Fig.  30(a)) is technically infeasible or where plumbing code requirements
prevent combining existing stalls to provide space, either alternate stall
(Fig.  30(b)) may be provided in lieu of the standard stall.

4.17.4 Toe Clearances.  In standard stalls, the front partition and at least
one side partition shall provide a toe clearance of at least 9 in (230 mm)
above the floor.  If the depth of the stall is greater than 60 in (1525 mm),
then the toe clearance is not required.

4.17.5* Doors.  Toilet stall doors, including door hardware, shall comply with
4.13.  If toilet stall approach is from the latch side of the stall door,
clearance between the door side of the stall and any obstruction may be
reduced to a minimum of 42 in (1065 mm) (Fig.  30).

4.17.6 Grab Bars.  Grab bars complying with the length and positioning shown
in Fig.  30(a), (b), (c), and (d) shall be provided.  Grab bars may be mounted
with any desired method as long as they have a gripping surface at the
locations shown and do not obstruct the required clear floor area.  Grab bars
shall comply with 4.26.

4.18 Urinals.

4.18.1 General.  Accessible urinals shall comply with 4.18.

4.18.2 Height.  Urinals shall be stall-type or wall-hung with an elongated rim
at a maximum of 17 in (430 mm) above the finish floor.

4.18.3 Clear Floor Space.  A clear floor space 30 in by 48 in (760 mm by 1220
mm) shall be provided in front of urinals to allow forward approach.  This
clear space shall adjoin or overlap an accessible route and shall comply with
4.2.4.  Urinal shields that do not extend beyond the front edge of the urinal
rim may be provided with 29 in (735 mm) clearance between them.

4.18.4 Flush Controls.  Flush controls shall be hand operated or automatic,
and shall comply with 4.27.4, and shall be mounted no more than 44 in (1120
mm) above the finish floor.

4.19 Lavatories and Mirrors.

4.19.1 General.  The requirements of 4.19 shall apply to lavatory fixtures,
vanities, and built-in lavatories.

4.19.2 Height and Clearances.  Lavatories shall be mounted with the rim or
counter surface no higher than 34 in (865 mm) above the finish floor.  Provide
a clearance of at least 29 in (735 mm) above the finish floor to the bottom of
the apron.  Knee and toe clearance shall comply with Fig.  31.

4.19.3 Clear Floor Space.  A clear floor space 30 in by 48 in (760 mm by 1220
mm) complying with 4.2.4 shall be provided in front of a lavatory to allow
forward approach.  Such clear floor space shall adjoin or overlap an
accessible route and shall extend a maximum of 19 in (485 mm) underneath the
lavatory (see Fig.  32).

4.19.4 Exposed Pipes and Surfaces.  Hot water and drain pipes under lavatories
shall be insulated or otherwise configured to protect against contact.  There
shall be no sharp or abrasive surfaces under lavatories.

4.19.5 Faucets.  Faucets shall comply with 4.27.4.  Lever-operated, push-type,
and electronically controlled mechanisms are examples of acceptable designs.
If self-closing valves are used the faucet shall remain open for at least 10
seconds.

4.19.6* Mirrors.  Mirrors shall be mounted with the bottom edge of the
reflecting surface no higher than 40 in (1015 mm) above the finish floor (see
Fig.  31).

4.20 Bathtubs.

4.20.1 General.  Accessible bathtubs shall comply with 4.20.

4.20.2 Floor Space.  Clear floor space in front of bathtubs shall be as shown
in Fig.  33.

4.20.3 Seat.  An in-tub seat or a seat at the head end of the tub shall be
provided as shown in Fig.  33 and 34.  The structural strength of seats and
their attachments shall comply with 4.26.3.  Seats shall be mounted securely
and shall not slip during use.

4.20.4 Grab Bars.  Grab bars complying with 4.26 shall be provided as shown in
Fig.  33 and 34.

 4.20.5 Controls.  Faucets and other controls complying with 4.27.4 shall be
located as shown in Fig.  34.

4.20.6 Shower Unit.  A shower spray unit with a hose at least 60 in (1525 mm)
long that can be used both as a fixed shower head and as a hand-held shower
shall be provided.

4.20.7 Bathtub Enclosures.  If provided, enclosures for bathtubs shall not
obstruct controls or transfer from wheelchairs onto bathtub seats or into
tubs.  Enclosures on bathtubs shall not have tracks mounted on their rims.

4.21 Shower Stalls.

4.21.1* General.  Accessible shower stalls shall comply with 4.21.


4.21.2 Size and Clearances.  Except as specified in 9.1.2, shower stall size
and clear floor space shall comply with Fig.  35(a) or (b).  The shower stall
in Fig.  35(a) shall be 36 in by 36 in (915 mm by 915 mm).  Shower stalls
required by 9.1.2 shall comply with Fig.  57(a) or (b).  The shower stall in
Fig.  35(b) will fit into the space required for a bathtub.

4.21.3 Seat.  A seat shall be provided in shower stalls 36 in by 36 in (915 mm
by 915 mm) and shall be as shown in Fig.  36.  The seat shall be mounted 17 in
to 19 in (430 mm to 485 mm) from the bathroom floor and shall extend the full
depth of the stall.  In a 36 in by 36 in (915 mm by 915 mm) shower stall, the
seat shall be on the wall opposite the controls.  Where a fixed seat is
provided in a 30 in by 60 in minimum (760 mm by 1525 mm) shower stall, it
shall be a folding type and shall be mounted on the wall adjacent to the
controls as shown in Fig.  57.  The structural strength of seats and their
attachments shall comply with 4.26.3.

4.21.4 Grab Bars.  Grab bars complying with 4.26 shall be provided as shown in
Fig.  37.

4.21.5 Controls.  Faucets and other controls complying with 4.27.4 shall be
located as shown in Fig.  37.  In shower stalls 36 in by 36 in (915 mm by 915
mm), all controls, faucets, and the shower unit shall be mounted on the side
wall opposite the seat.

4.21.6 Shower Unit.  A shower spray unit with a hose at least 60 in (1525 mm)
long that can be used both as a fixed shower head and as a hand-held shower
shall be provided.

EXCEPTION: In unmonitored facilities where vandalism is a consideration, a
fixed shower head mounted at 48 in (1220 mm) above the shower floor may be
used in lieu of a hand-held shower head.

4.21.7 Curbs.  If provided, curbs in shower stalls 36 in by 36 in (915 mm by
915 mm) shall be no higher than 1/2 in (13 mm).  Shower stalls that are 30 in
by 60 in (760 mm by 1525 mm) minimum shall not have curbs.

4.21.8 Shower Enclosures.  If provided, enclosures for shower stalls shall not
obstruct controls or obstruct transfer from wheelchairs onto shower seats.

4.22 Toilet Rooms.

4.22.1 Minimum Number.  Toilet facilities required to be accessible by 4.1
shall comply with 4.22.  Accessible toilet rooms shall be on an accessible
route.

4.22.2 Doors.  All doors to accessible toilet rooms shall comply with 4.13.
Doors shall not swing into the clear floor space required for any fixture.

4.22.3* Clear Floor Space.  The accessible fixtures and controls required in
4.22.4, 4.22.5, 4.22.6, and 4.22.7 shall be on an accessible route.  An
unobstructed turning space complying with 4.2.3 shall be provided within an
accessible toilet room.  The clear floor space at fixtures and controls, the
accessible route, and the turning space may overlap.

4.22.4 Water Closets.  If toilet stalls are provided, then at least one shall
be a standard toilet stall complying with 4.17; where 6 or more stalls are
provided, in addition to the stall complying with 4.17.3, at least one stall
36 in (915 mm) wide with an outward swinging, self- closing door and parallel
grab bars complying with Fig.  30(d) and 4.26 shall be provided.  Water
closets in such stalls shall comply with 4.16.  If water closets are not in
stalls, then at least one shall comply with 4.16.

4.22.5 Urinals.  If urinals are provided, then at least one shall comply with
4.18.

4.22.6 Lavatories and Mirrors.  If lavatories and mirrors are provided, then
at least one of each shall comply with 4.19.

4.22.7 Controls and Dispensers.  If controls, dispensers, receptacles, or
other equipment are provided, then at least one of each shall be on an
accessible route and shall comply with 4.27.

 4.23 Bathrooms, Bathing Facilities, and Shower Rooms.

4.23.1 Minimum Number.  Bathrooms, bathing facilities, or shower rooms
required to be accessible by 4.1 shall comply with 4.23 and shall be on an
accessible route.

4.23.2 Doors.  Doors to accessible bathrooms shall comply with 4.13.  Doors
shall not swing into the floor space required for any fixture.

4.23.3* Clear Floor Space.  The accessible fixtures and controls required in
4.23.4, 4.23.5, 4.23.6, 4.23.7, 4.23.8, and 4.23.9 shall be on an accessible
route.  An unobstructed turning space complying with 4.2.3 shall be provided
within an accessible bathroom.  The clear floor spaces at fixtures and
controls, the accessible route, and the turning space may overlap.

4.23.4 Water Closets.  If toilet stalls are provided, then at least one shall
be a standard toilet stall complying with 4.17; where 6 or more stalls are
provided, in addition to the stall complying with 4.17.3, at least one stall
36 in (915 mm) wide with an outward swinging, self- closing door and parallel
grab bars complying with Fig.  30(d) and 4.26 shall be provided.  Water
closets in such stalls shall comply with 4.16.  If water closets are not in
stalls, then at least one shall comply with 4.16.

4.23.5 Urinals.  If urinals are provided, then at least one shall comply with
4.18.

4.23.6 Lavatories and Mirrors.  If lavatories and mirrors are provided, then
at least one of each shall comply with 4.19.

4.23.7 Controls and Dispensers.  If controls, dispensers, receptacles, or
other equipment are provided, then at least one of each shall be on an
accessible route and shall comply with 4.27.

4.23.8 Bathing and Shower Facilities.  If tubs or showers are provided, then
at least one accessible tub that complies with 4.20 or at least one accessible
shower that complies with 4.21 shall be provided.

4.23.9* Medicine Cabinets.  If medicine cabinets are provided, at least one
shall be located with a usable shelf no higher than 44 in (1120 mm) above the
floor space.  The floor space shall comply with 4.2.4.

4.24 Sinks.

4.24.1 General.  Sinks required to be accessible by 4.1 shall comply with
4.24.

4.24.2 Height.  Sinks shall be mounted with the counter or rim no higher than
34 in (865 mm) above the finish floor.

4.24.3 Knee Clearance.  Knee clearance that is at least 27 in (685 mm) high,
30 in (760 mm) wide, and 19 in (485 mm) deep shall be provided underneath
sinks.

4.24.4 Depth.  Each sink shall be a maximum of 6-1/2 in (165 mm) deep.

4.24.5 Clear Floor Space.  A clear floor space at least 30 in by 48 in (760 mm
by 1220 mm) complying with 4.2.4 shall be provided in front of a sink to allow
forward approach.  The clear floor space shall be on an accessible route and
shall extend a maximum of 19 in (485 mm) underneath the sink (see Fig.  32).

4.24.6 Exposed Pipes and Surfaces.  Hot water and drain pipes exposed under
sinks shall be insulated or otherwise configured so as to protect against
contact.  There shall be no sharp or abrasive surfaces under sinks.

4.24.7 Faucets.  Faucets shall comply with 4.27.4.  Lever-operated, push-type,
touch-type, or electronically controlled mechanisms are acceptable designs.

4.25 Storage.

4.25.1 General.  Fixed storage facilities such as cabinets, shelves, closets,
and drawers required to be accessible by 4.1 shall comply with 4.25.

4.25.2 Clear Floor Space.  A clear floor space at least 30 in by 48 in (760 mm
by 1220 mm) complying with 4.2.4 that allows either a forward or parallel
approach by a person using a wheelchair shall be provided at accessible
storage facilities.

4.25.3 Height.  Accessible storage spaces shall be within at least one of the
reach ranges specified in 4.2.5 and 4.2.6 (see Fig.  5 and Fig 6).  Clothes
rods or shelves shall be a maximum of 54 in (1370 mm) above the finish floor
for a side approach.  Where the distance from the wheelchair to the clothes
rod or shelf exceeds 10 in (255 mm) (as in closets without accessible doors)
the height and depth to the rod or shelf shall comply with Fig.  38(a) and
Fig.  38(b).

4.25.4 Hardware.  Hardware for accessible storage facilities shall comply with
4.27.4.  Touch latches and U-shaped pulls are acceptable.

4.26 Handrails, Grab Bars, and Tub and Shower Seats.

4.26.1* General.  All handrails, grab bars, and tub and shower seats required
to be accessible by 4.1, 4.8, 4.9, 4.16, 4.17, 4.20 or 4.21 shall comply with
4.26.

4.26.2* Size and Spacing of Grab Bars and Handrails.  The diameter or width of
the gripping surfaces of a handrail or grab bar shall be 1-1/4 in to 1-1/2 in
(32 mm to 38 mm), or the shape shall provide an equivalent gripping surface.
If handrails or grab bars are mounted adjacent to a wall, the space between
the wall and the grab bar shall be 1-1/2 in (38 mm) (see Fig.  39(a), (b),
(c), and (e)).  Handrails may be located in a recess if the recess is a
maximum of 3 in (75 mm) deep and extends at least 18 in (455 mm) above the top
of the rail (see Fig.  39(d)).

4.26.3 Structural Strength.  The structural strength of grab bars, tub and
shower seats, fasteners, and mounting devices shall meet the following
specification:

  (1) Bending stress in a grab bar or seat induced by the maximum bending
moment from the application of 250 lbf (1112N) shall be less than the
allowable stress for the material of the grab bar or seat.

  (2) Shear stress induced in a grab bar or seat by the application of 250 lbf
(1112N) shall be less than the allowable shear stress for the material of the
grab bar or seat.  If the connection between the grab bar or seat and its
mounting bracket or other support is considered to be fully restrained, then
direct and torsional shear stresses shall be totaled for the combined shear
stress, which shall not exceed the allowable shear stress.

  (3) Shear force induced in a fastener or mounting device from the
application of 250 lbf (1112N) shall be less than the allowable lateral load
of either the fastener or mounting device or the supporting structure,
whichever is the smaller allowable load.

  (4) Tensile force induced in a fastener by a direct tension force of 250 lbf
(1112N) plus the maximum moment from the application of 250 lbf (1112N) shall
be less than the allowable withdrawal load between the fastener and the
supporting structure.

  (5) Grab bars shall not rotate within their fittings.

4.26.4 Eliminating Hazards.  A handrail or grab bar and any wall or other
surface adjacent to it shall be free of any sharp or abrasive elements.  Edges
shall have a minimum radius of 1/8 in (3.2 mm).

4.27 Controls and Operating Mechanisms.

4.27.1 General.  Controls and operating mechanisms required to be accessible
by 4.1 shall comply with 4.27.

4.27.2 Clear Floor Space.  Clear floor space complying with 4.2.4 that allows
a forward or a parallel approach by a person using a wheelchair shall be
provided at controls, dispensers, receptacles, and other operable equipment.

4.27.3* Height.  The highest operable part of controls, dispensers,
receptacles, and other operable equipment shall be placed within at least one
of the reach ranges specified in 4.2.5 and 4.2.6.  Electrical and
communications system receptacles on walls shall be mounted no less than 15 in
(380 mm) above the floor.

EXCEPTION: These requirements do not apply where the use of special equipment
dictates otherwise or where electrical and communications systems receptacles
are not normally intended for use by building occupants.

4.27.4 Operation.  Controls and operating mechanisms shall be operable with
one hand and shall not require tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the
wrist.  The force required to activate controls shall be no greater than 5 lbf
(22.2 N).

4.28 Alarms.

4.28.1 General.  Alarm systems required to be accessible by 4.1 shall comply
with 4.28.  At a minimum, visual signal appliances shall be provided in
buildings and facilities in each of the following areas: restrooms and any
other general usage areas (e.g., meeting rooms), hallways, lobbies, and any
other area for common use.

4.28.2* Audible Alarms.  If provided, audible emergency alarms shall produce a
sound that exceeds the prevailing equivalent sound level in the room or space
by at least 15 dbA or exceeds any maximum sound level with a duration of 60
seconds by 5 dbA, whichever is louder.  Sound levels for alarm signals shall
not exceed 120 dbA.

4.28.3* Visual Alarms.  Visual alarm signal appliances shall be integrated
into the building or facility alarm system.  If single station audible alarms
are provided then single station visual alarm signals shall be provided.
Visual alarm signals shall have the following minimum photometric and location
features:

  (1) The lamp shall be a xenon strobe type or equivalent.  (2) The color
shall be clear or nominal white (i.e., unfiltered or clear filtered white
light).

  (3) The maximum pulse duration shall be two-tenths of one second (0.2 sec)
with a maximum duty cycle of 40 percent.  The pulse duration is defined as the
time interval between initial and final points of 10 percent of maximum
signal.

  (4) The intensity shall be a minimum of 75 candela.

  (5) The flash rate shall be a minimum of 1 Hz and a maximum of 3 Hz.

  (6) The appliance shall be placed 80 in (2030 mm) above the highest floor
level within the space or 6 in (152 mm) below the ceiling, whichever is lower.

  (7) In general, no place in any room or space required to have a visual
signal appliance shall be more than 50 ft (15 m) from the signal (in the
horizontal plane).  In large rooms and spaces exceeding 100 ft (30 m) across,
without obstructions 6 ft (2 m) above the finish floor, such as auditoriums,
devices may be placed around the perimeter, spaced a maximum 100 ft (30 m)
apart, in lieu of suspending appliances from the ceiling.

  (8) No place in common corridors or hallways in which visual alarm
signalling appliances are required shall be more than 50 ft (15 m) from the
signal.

4.28.4* Auxiliary Alarms.  Units and sleeping accommodations shall have a
visual alarm connected to the building emergency alarm system or shall have a
standard 110-volt electrical receptacle into which such an alarm can be
connected and a means by which a signal from the building emergency alarm
system can trigger such an auxiliary alarm.  When visual alarms are in place
the signal shall be visible in all areas of the unit or room.  Instructions
for use of the auxiliary alarm or receptacle shall be provided.

4.29 Detectable Warnings.

4.29.1 General.  Detectable warnings required by 4.1 and 4.7 shall comply with
4.29.

4.29.2* Detectable Warnings on Walking Surfaces.  Detectable warnings shall
consist of raised truncated domes with a diameter of nominal 0.9 in (23 mm), a
height of nominal 0.2 in (5 mm) and a center-to-center spacing of nominal 2.35
in (60 mm) and shall contrast visually with adjoining surfaces, either
light-on-dark, or dark-on-light.

The material used to provide contrast shall be an integral part of the walking
surface.  Detectable warnings used on interior surfaces shall differ from
adjoining walking surfaces in resiliency or sound-on-cane contact.

4.29.3 Detectable Warnings on Doors To Hazardous Areas.  (Reserved).

4.29.4 Detectable Warnings at Stairs.  (Reserved).

4.29.5 Detectable Warnings at Hazardous Vehicular Areas.  If a walk crosses or
adjoins a vehicular way, and the walking surfaces are not separated by curbs,
railings, or other elements between the pedestrian areas and vehicular areas,
the boundary between the areas shall be defined by a continuous detectable
warning which is 36 in (915 mm) wide, complying with 4.29.2.

4.29.6 Detectable Warnings at Reflecting Pools.  The edges of reflecting pools
shall be protected by railings, walls, curbs, or detectable warnings complying
with 4.29.2.

4.29.7 Standardization.  (Reserved).

4.30 Signage.

4.30.1* General.  Signage required to be accessible by 4.1 shall comply with
the applicable provisions of 4.30.

4.30.2* Character Proportion.  Letters and numbers on signs shall have a
width-to-height ratio between 3:5 and 1:1 and a stroke-width-to-height ratio
between 1:5 and 1:10.

4.30.3 Character Height.  Characters and numbers on signs shall be sized
according to the viewing distance from which they are to be read.  The minimum
height is measured using an upper case X.  Lower case characters are
permitted.

Height Above Finished Floor Minimum Character Height Suspended or Projected
Overhead in compliance with 4.4.2
  3 in (75 mm) minimum

4.30.4* Raised and Brailled Characters and Pictorial Symbol Signs
(Pictograms).  Letters and numerals shall be raised 1/32 in, upper case, sans
serif or simple serif type and shall be accompanied with Grade 2 Braille.
Raised characters shall be at least 5/8 in (16 mm) high, but no higher than 2
in (50 mm).  Pictograms shall be accompanied by the equivalent verbal
description placed directly below the pictogram.  The border dimension of the
pictogram shall be 6 in (152 mm) minimum in height.

4.30.5* Finish and Contrast.  The characters and background of signs shall be
eggshell, matte, or other non-glare finish.  Characters and symbols shall
contrast with their background -- either light characters on a dark background
or dark characters on a light background.

4.30.6 Mounting Location and Height.  Where permanent identification is
provided for rooms and spaces, signs shall be installed on the wall adjacent
to the latch side of the door.  Where there is no wall space to the latch side
of the door, including at double leaf doors, signs shall be placed on the
nearest adjacent wall.  Mounting height shall be 60 in (1525 mm) above the
finish floor to the centerline of the sign.  Mounting location for such
signage shall be so that a person may approach within 3 in (76 mm) of signage
without encountering protruding objects or standing within the swing of a
door.

4.30.7* Symbols of Accessibility.

  (1) Facilities and elements required to be identified as accessible by 4.1
shall use the international symbol of accessibility.  The symbol shall be
displayed as shown in Fig.  43(a) and (b).

  (2) Volume Control Telephones.  Telephones required to have a volume control
by 4.1.3(17)(b) shall be identified by a sign containing a depiction of a
telephone handset with radiating sound waves.

  (3) Text Telephones.  Text telephones required by 4.1.3(17)(c) shall be
identified by the international TDD symbol (Fig 43(c)).  In addition, if a
facility has a public text telephone, directional signage indicating the
location of the nearest text telephone shall be placed adjacent to all banks
of telephones which do not contain a text telephone.  Such directional signage
shall include the international TDD symbol.  If a facility has no banks of
telephones, the directional signage shall be provided at the entrance (e.g.,
in a building directory).

  (4) Assistive Listening Systems.  In assembly areas where permanently
installed assistive listening systems are required by 4.1.3(19)(b) the
availability of such systems shall be identified with signage that includes
the international symbol of access for hearing loss (Fig 43(d)).

4.30.8* Illumination Levels.  (Reserved).

4.31 Telephones.

4.31.1 General.  Public telephones required to be accessible by 4.1 shall
comply with 4.31.

4.31.2 Clear Floor or Ground Space.  A clear floor or ground space at least 30
in by 48 in (760 mm by 1220 mm) that allows either a forward or parallel
approach by a person using a wheelchair shall be provided at telephones (see
Fig.  44).  The clear floor or ground space shall comply with 4.2.4.  Bases,
enclosures, and fixed seats shall not impede approaches to telephones by
people who use wheelchairs.

4.31.3* Mounting Height.  The highest operable part of the telephone shall be
within the reach ranges specified in 4.2.5 or 4.2.6.

4.31.4 Protruding Objects.  Telephones shall comply with 4.4.

4.31.5 Hearing Aid Compatible and Volume Control Telephones Required by 4.1.

  (1) Telephones shall be hearing aid compatible.

  (2) Volume controls, capable of a minimum of 12 dbA and a maximum of 18 dbA
above normal, shall be provided in accordance with 4.1.3.  If an automatic
reset is provided then 18 dbA may be exceeded.

4.31.6 Controls.  Telephones shall have pushbutton controls where service for
such equipment is available.

4.31.7 Telephone Books.  Telephone books, if provided, shall be located in a
position that complies with the reach ranges specified in 4.2.5 and 4.2.6.

4.31.8 Cord Length.  The cord from the telephone to the handset shall be at
least 29 in (735 mm) long.

4.31.9* Text Telephones Required by 4.1.

  (1) Text telephones used with a pay telephone shall be permanently affixed
within, or adjacent to, the telephone enclosure.  If an acoustic coupler is
used, the telephone cord shall be sufficiently long to allow connection of the
text telephone and the telephone receiver.

  (2) Pay telephones designed to accommodate a portable text telephone shall
be equipped with a shelf and an electrical outlet within or adjacent to the
telephone enclosure.  The telephone handset shall be capable of being placed
flush on the surface of the shelf.  The shelf shall be capable of
accommodating a text telephone and shall have 6 in (152 mm) minimum vertical
clearance in the area where the text telephone is to be placed.

  (3) Equivalent facilitation may be provided.  For example, a portable text
telephone may be made available in a hotel at the registration desk if it is
available on a 24-hour basis for use with nearby public pay telephones.  In
this instance, at least one pay telephone shall comply with paragraph 2 of
this section.  In addition, if an acoustic coupler is used, the telephone
handset cord shall be sufficiently long so as to allow connection of the text
telephone and the telephone receiver.  Directional signage shall be provided
and shall comply with 4.30.7.

4.32 Fixed or Built-in Seating and Tables.

4.32.1 Minimum Number.  Fixed or built-in seating or tables required to be
accessible by 4.1 shall comply with 4.32.

4.32.2 Seating.  If seating spaces for people in wheelchairs are provided at
fixed tables or counters, clear floor space complying with 4.2.4 shall be
provided.  Such clear floor space shall not overlap knee space by more than 19
in (485 mm) (see Fig.  45).

4.32.3 Knee Clearances.  If seating for people in wheelchairs is provided at
tables or counters, knee spaces at least 27 in (685 mm) high, 30 in (760 mm)
wide, and 19 in (485 mm) deep shall be provided (see Fig.  45).

4.32.4* Height of Tables or Counters.  The tops of accessible tables and
counters shall be from 28 in to 34 in (710 mm to 865 mm) above the finish
floor or ground.

4.33 Assembly Areas.

4.33.1 Minimum Number.  Assembly and associated areas required to be
accessible by 4.1 shall comply with 4.33.

4.33.2* Size of Wheelchair Locations.  Each wheelchair location shall provide
minimum clear ground or floor spaces as shown in Fig.  46.

4.33.3* Placement of Wheelchair Locations.  Wheelchair areas shall be an
integral part of any fixed seating plan and shall be provided so as to provide
people with physical disabilities a choice of admission prices and lines of
sight comparable to those for members of the general public.  They shall
adjoin an accessible route that also serves as a means of egress in case of
emergency.  At least one companion fixed seat shall be provided next to each
wheelchair seating area.  When the seating capacity exceeds 300, wheelchair
spaces shall be provided in more than one location.  Readily removable seats
may be installed in wheelchair spaces when the spaces are not required to
accommodate wheelchair users.

EXCEPTION: Accessible viewing positions may be clustered for bleachers,
balconies, and other areas having sight lines that require slopes of greater
than 5 percent.  Equivalent accessible viewing positions may be located on
levels having accessible egress.

4.33.4 Surfaces.  The ground or floor at wheelchair locations shall be level
and shall comply with 4.5.

4.33.5 Access to Performing Areas.  An accessible route shall connect
wheelchair seating locations with performing areas, including stages, arena
floors, dressing rooms, locker rooms, and other spaces used by performers.

4.33.6* Placement of Listening Systems.  If the listening system provided
serves individual fixed seats, then such seats shall be located within a 50 ft
(15 m) viewing distance of the stage or playing area and shall have a complete
view of the stage or playing area.

4.33.7* Types of Listening Systems.  Assistive listening systems (ALS) are
intended to augment standard public address and audio systems by providing
signals which can be received directly by persons with special receivers or
their own hearing aids and which eliminate or filter background noise.  The
type of assistive listening system appropriate for a particular application
depends on the characteristics of the setting, the nature of the program, and
the intended audience.  Magnetic induction loops, infra-red and radio
frequency systems are types of listening systems which are appropriate for
various applications.

4.34 Automated Teller Machines.

4.34.1 General.  Each machine required to be accessible by 4.1.3 shall be on
an accessible route and shall comply with 4.34.

4.34.2 Controls.  Controls for user activation shall comply with the
requirements of 4.27.

4.34.3 Clearances and Reach Range.  Free standing or built-in units not having
a clear space under them shall comply with 4.27.2 and 4.27.3 and provide for a
parallel approach and both a forward and side reach to the unit allowing a
person in a wheelchair to access the controls and dispensers.

4.34.4 Equipment for Persons with Vision Impairments.  Instructions and all
information for use shall be made accessible to and independently usable by
persons with vision impairments.

4.35 Dressing and Fitting Rooms.

4.35.1 General.  Dressing and fitting rooms required to be accessible by 4.1
shall comply with 4.35 and shall be on an accessible route.

4.35.2 Clear Floor Space.  A clear floor space allowing a person using a
wheelchair to make a 180-degree turn shall be provided in every accessible
dressing room entered through a swinging or sliding door.  No door shall swing
into any part of the turning space.  Turning space shall not be required in a
private dressing room entered through a curtained opening at least 32 in (815
mm) wide if clear floor space complying with section 4.2 renders the dressing
room usable by a person using a wheelchair.

4.35.3 Doors.  All doors to accessible dressing rooms shall be in compliance
with section 4.13.

4.35.4 Bench.  Every accessible dressing room shall have a 24 in by 48 in (610
mm by 1220 mm) bench fixed to the wall along the longer dimension.  The bench
shall be mounted 17 in to 19 in (430 mm to 485 mm) above the finish floor.
Clear floor space shall be provided alongside the bench to allow a person
using a wheelchair to make a parallel transfer onto the bench.  The structural
strength of the bench and attachments shall comply with 4.26.3.  Where
installed in conjunction with showers, swimming pools, or other wet locations,
water shall not accumulate upon the surface of the bench and the bench shall
have a slip-resistant surface.

4.35.5 Mirror.  Where mirrors are provided in dressing rooms of the same use,
then in an accessible dressing room, a full-length mirror, measuring at least
18 in wide by 54 in high (460 mm by 1370 mm), shall be mounted in a position
affording a view to a person on the bench as well as to a person in a standing
position.

NOTE: Sections 4.1.1 through 4.1.7 and sections 5 through 10 are different
from ANSI A117.1 in their entirety and are printed in standard type.

<- 3. Miscellaneous Instructions